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Katherine Gajardo Espinoza
Universidad de Santiago
España
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9972-6116
Luis Torrego Egido
Universidad de Valladolid
España
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2907-1158
Vol. 34 Núm. 1 (2022), Artículos, Páginas 139-165
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14201/teri.25174
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Resumen

La educación democrática es esencial para la construcción de sociedades más justas y equitativas. De ahí la importancia de la participación de niños y niñas y del ejercicio de la ciudadanía en la escuela, que ha de realizarse desde edades tempranas, apenas los pequeños inician el proceso de socialización con sus pares. Sin embargo, son escasas las experiencias de prácticas democráticas en educación infantil formal, quizás por la escasa consideración de la infancia como sujeto de derechos de ciudadanía. En este artículo se analizan las acciones y los diálogos, tanto en el aula como fuera de ella, de una maestra, con una intensa trayectoria en los Movimientos de Renovación Pedagógica (MRP), y de las niñas y niños de educación infantil de una escuela pública de España, respecto al ejercicio de la educación democrática. La investigación se concreta en un estudio de casos realizado a lo largo de dos cursos académicos (2018 a 2020), que se sirve de observación participante, entrevistas informales, entrevistas en profundidad y análisis documental. Los resultados indican que es posible favorecer acciones centradas en el alumnado y en su participación ciudadana, con la perspectiva de la educación democrática y desde muy tempranas edades (2 a 5 años). Para ello resultan esenciales el compromiso docente con los derechos del niño, la utilización del diálogo como eje vertebrador, el impulso por el cuidado de uno mismo y del otro, el fomento de la convivencia y la cooperación entre pares, la denuncia de la injusticia, la promoción de la igualdad y el desarrollo diverso de relaciones con el entorno.

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