Sobre la comprensión de las «prácticas» gitanas. Estimular la investigación educativa para pasar de «lo que es el caso» a «lo que hay que hacer»



Generalmente, los gitanos son vistos como muy diferentes de la sociedad mayoritaria. Este artículo tiene un doble objetivo. En primer lugar, se exploran estas diferencias y se intenta dar sentido a las prácticas sociales de los gitanos. Para lograr esto, el marco teórico de Wittgenstein, Winch y otros sobre el significado y las prácticas sociales se aplica a esta subcultura. En segundo lugar, este «caso extremo» extiende el marco teórico hasta sus límites. Sin embargo, se argumenta que es posible dar expresión a esta experiencia de gran diferencia. La noción de Wittgenstein de «saber cómo continuar» urge la investigación educativa para superar «lo que es el caso» y llegar a «lo que hay que hacer». Por medio de ejemplos empíricos tomados de
la investigación en la educación de los niños gitanos, se argumenta de esta manera la
necesidad de adoptar este nuevo paso. Se ofrecen respuestas en cuanto a «cómo continuar» en relación con el caso investigado y se exploran las posibilidades como restricciones tanto del marco teórico como de la investigación educativa.

Palabras clave

gitanos; Wittgenstein; prácticas sociales; investigación educativa.

Texto completo:



Bancroft, A. (2005) Roma and Gypsy-Travellers in Europe: Modernity, race, space and exclusion. Research in Migration and Ethnic Relations Series. Hants, uk/Burlington, us, Ashgate Publishing.

Beck, U. (1992) Risk society: Towards a new modernity. New Delhi, Sage.

Cahn, C.; Chirico, D.; McDonald, C.; Mohácsi, V.; Peric, T. and Székely, Á. (1999) Roma in the educational systems of Central and Eastern Europe, in Fényes, C.; McDonald, C. and Mészáros A. (eds.) The Roma education resource book. Budapest, Open Society Institute, 20-26.

Cavell, S. (1988) In quest of the ordinary. Lines of scepticism and romanticism. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

European Commission (2009) eu Platform or Roma Inclusion: memo/09/193. Brussels, European Commission.

European Commission (2011) An eu Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies up to 2020: com/2011/0173. Brussels, European Commission.

Fraser, A. (1992) The Gypsies. Oxford, uk, Blackwell Publishers.

Gómez Alonso, J. and Vargas, J. (2003) Why Roma do not like mainstream school: A voice of people without a territory. Harvard Educational Review, 73, 559-590.

Guy, W. (2001) Between past and future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield, Hertfordshire University Press.

Hemelsoet, E. (2012) How to make sense of the right to education? Issues from the case of Roma people. Ethics and Education, 7, 163-174.

Hemelsoet, E. (2013a) A critical appraisal of policies and practices focusing upon the right to education: The case of the Roma in Ghent. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Ghent University, Belgium.

Hemelsoet, E. (2013b) The Roma people: problem or mirror for Western European societies? An exploration of educational possibilities, in Miskovic, M. (ed.) Roma Education in Europe. Practices, policies, and politics. Philadelphia, Routledge, 59-70.

Hemelsoet, E. (2015) Shaping the right to education for Roma children. A case study of present practices in Ghent, Belgium. Intercultural Education, 26 (2), 1-12.

Hemelsoet, E. and Van Pelt, P. (2013) Questioning the policy framing of Roma in Ghent, Belgium: Some implications of taking an insider perspective seriously. Social Inclusion, 3 (5), 148-160.

Ladányi, J. and Szelényi, I. (2003) Patterns of exclusion: Constructing Gypsy ethnicity and the making of an underclass in transitional societies of Europe. New York, Columbia University Press.

Levinson, M. P. and Sparkes, A. C. (2005) Gypsy children, space, and the school environment. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 18, 751-772.

Lewis, C. D. (1943) 'Where Are the War Poets'. Consulted 13 May, 2013.

Lewis, O. (1959) Five families: Mexican case studies in the culture of poverty. New York, Basic Books.

Liégois, J.-P. (2007) Roma in Europe. Strasbourg, Council of Europe Publishing.

Lucassen, L.; Willems, W. and Cottaar, A. (1998) Gypsies and other itinerant groups. A socio-historical approach. New York, Palgrave Macmillan.

Malcolm, N. (1986) Nothing is hidden. Wittgenstein's criticism of his early thought. Oxford, Blackwell.

McDonald, C. and Negrin, K. (2010) No data-No progress. Data collection in countries participating in the Decade of Roma Inclusion 2005-2015. New York, Open Societies Foundations.

Myers, M.; McGhee, D. and Bhopal, K. (2010) At the crossroads: Gypsy and Traveller Parents' Perceptions of Education, Protection and Social Change. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 13 (4), 533-548.

Nussbaum, M. (1997) Cultivating humanity. A classical defence of reform in liberal education. Cambridge, Harvard up.

O'Nions, H. (2010) Different and unequal: The educational segregation of Roma pupils in Europe. Intercultural Education, 21 (1), 1-13.

Open Society Foundations (2012) Failing another generation. The travesty of Roma education in the Czech Republic. New York, Open Society Foundations.

Rorke, B. (2013) Beyond first steps. What next for the eu framework for Roma integration? Budapest, Roma Initiatives Office.

Rostas, I. (ed.) (2012) Ten years after. A history of Roma school desegregation in Central and Eastern Europe. Budapest, Roma Education Fund and Central European University Press.

?andru, R. (2009) Roma and education in Romania: An analysis of educational problems and the actions taken to overcome them. Romani E Journal, 4, 30-45.

Smeyers, P. (2006) 'What it makes sense to say'. Education, philosophy and Peter Winch on social science. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 40, 463-485.

Smeyers, P. (2007) The invisible homogenization of educational research. On opening up the sphere of responsiveness, in Smeyers, P. and Depaepe, M. (eds.) Educational research: Networks and technologies. Dordrecht, Springer, 85-104.

Smeyers, P. (2009) Education, educational research, and the 'grammar' of understanding. A response to Bridges. Ethics and Education, 4, 125-129.

Smeyers, P. (2012) Chains of dependency: On the disenchantment and the illusion of being free at last (Part 1; Part 2). Journal of Philosophy of Education, 46, 177-191; 461-471.

Smeyers, P. and Burbules, N. (2006) Education as initiation into practices. Educational Theory, 56, 439-449.

Smeyers, P. and Marshall, J. (eds.) (1995) Philosophy and education: Accepting Wittgenstein's challenge. Dordrecht, Kluwer.

Székelyi, M.; Csepeli, G. and Örkény, A. (2003) Ambitious education: The role of family, school and friends in the development of successful Romany life courses. Romani Stu­dies. Fifth Series, 13 (1), 53-72.

Taylor, C. (1985) Philosophical papers. Volume 1. Human agency and language. Volume 2. Philosophy and the human sciences. Cambridge, University Press.

The World Bank (2012) Toward an equal start: Closing the early learning gap for Roma children in Eastern Europe. Washington, us, The World Bank. unicef (2011) The right of Roma children to education. Position paper. Paris, Unicef.

Van der Straeten, I. (2013) «Wat wil je later graag worden?» Een exploratief onderzoek naar het toekomstperspectief van Roma-jongeren in Gent. ma thesis. Ghent, Ghent University.

Winch, P. (1958) The idea of a social science and its relation to philosophy. London, Routledge.

Winch, P. (1987) Trying to make sense. Oxford, Basil Blackwell.

Wittgenstein, L. (1953) Philosophical investigations/Philosophische Untersuchungen (G. E. M. Anscombe, Trans.). Oxford, Blackwell. [PI in text.]

Wittgenstein, L. (1969) On certainty/Über Gewissheit (Edited by G. E. M. Anscombe and G. H. von Wright; D. Paul and G. E. M. Anscombe, Trans.). Oxford, Blackwell. [C in text.]


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

    ESCI Web of Science