Pensamiento computacional desenchufado

Miguel Zapata-Ros

Resumen


La idea de pensamiento computacional desenchufado (Computational thinking unplugged) hace referencia a un conjunto de actividades que se elaboran para fomentar en los niños habilidades que pueden ser evocadas después, para favorecer el pensamiento computacional. Estas actividades están pensadas y diseñadas para ser incluidas en las primeras etapas de desarrollo cognitivo (educación infantil, primer tramo de la educación primaria, juegos en casa con los padres y los amigos, etc.). Las habilidades están pensadas para que puedan ser evocadas en otros ciclos y niveles educativos, en la educación secundaria, en la formación técnica, en la profesional o en la educación universitaria incluso. Las actividades se suelen hacer sin ordenadores y sin pantallas móviles, con fichas, cartulinas, juegos de sala de clase o juegos de patio, juguetes mecánicos, etc. En este trabajo se pone de relieve que hay una serie de datos, ideas y circunstancias que hacen posible ahora, y no antes, que se implemente el pensamiento computacional desenchufado. Por último, describimos actividades, iniciativas y experiencias que se están desarrollando ya, y hacemos unas propuestas de actividades y de sus guías para profesores y cuidadores de preescolar.


Palabras clave


Pensamiento computacional; Pensamiento computacional desenchufado; Evocación; Principales principios de aprendizaje; Actividades de aprendizaje; KIBO; Bee bot; Cs unplugged; PlayMaker

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Balanskat, A., & Engelhardt, K. (2015). Computing our future. Computer programming and coding Priorities, school curricula and initiatives across Europe. Brussels, Belgium: European Schoolnet. Retrieved from https://goo.gl/i5aQiv

Bawden, D. (2001). Information and digital literacies: a review of concepts. Journal of Documentation, 57(2), 218–259. doi:https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000007083

Bawden, D. (2008). Origins and concepts of digital literacy. Digital literacies: Concepts, policies and practices, 17-32.

Bell, T., Alexander, J., Freeman, I., & Grimley, M. (2009). Computer science unplugged: School students doing real computing without computers. The New Zealand Journal of Applied Computing and Information Technology, 13(1), 20-29.

Bell, T., Andreae, P., & Robins, A. (2014). A case study of the introduction of computer science in NZ schools. ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE), 14(2), 10. doi:https://doi.org/10.1145/2602485

Bell, T., & Vahrenhold, J. (2018). CS Unplugged—How Is It Used, and Does It Work? In H. J. Böckenhauer, D. Komm, & U. W. (Eds.), Adventures Between Lower Bounds and Higher Altitudes. Cham: Springer. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-98355-4_29

Chambers, J. (2015). Inside Singapore’s plans for robots in pre-schools. How a bold new scheme is teaching tech skills to 6 year olds. GovInsider. https://bit.ly/2LagRzi

Devlin, K. (2001) The Math Gene: How Mathematical Thinking Evolved and Why Numbers Are like Gossip. NY: Basic Books.

DevTech Research Group of Tufts University (2015). Where the Wild Things Are A KIBO Curriculum Unit on Programming and Robots Integrated with Foundational Literacy Topics. https://bit.ly/2FrC4kN

DevTech Research Group (2016). Literacy Activities with KIBO’s Expression Module, https://bit.ly/2x8zOKq https://bit.ly/2ZICx9T

DevTech Research Group (October 2018). Where the Wild Things Are. https://bit.ly/2L5zvIN https://bit.ly/2FrC4kN

Digital News Asia, (2015) https://bit.ly/2J40a5W

Duncan, C., & Bell, T. (2015). A pilot computer science and programming course for primary school students. In Proceedings of the Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education (pp. 39-48). USA: ACM. doi:https://doi.org/10.1145/2818314.2818328

Gallagher, A., Thissen, S. & Hrdina, V. (2018). Little Coders Computational Thinking in K-2 Classrooms - NCCE 2019. https://bit.ly/2N6AcUH

García-Peñalvo, F. J. (2016). A brief introduction to TACCLE 3 – Coding European Project. In F. J. García-Peñalvo & J. A. Mendes (Eds.), 2016 International Symposium on Computers in Education (SIIE 16). USA: IEEE. doi:https://doi.org/10.1109/SIIE.2016.7751876

García-Peñalvo, F. J., Llorens Largo, F., Molero Prieto, X., & Vendrell Vidal, E. (2017). Educación en Informática sub 18 (EI<18). ReVisión, 10(2), 13-18.

García-Peñalvo, F. J., & Mendes, J. A. (2018). Exploring the computational thinking effects in pre-university education. Computers in Human Behavior, 80, 407-411. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.12.005

García-Peñalvo, F. J., Reimann, D., & Maday, C. (2018). Introducing Coding and Computational Thinking in the Schools: The TACCLE 3 – Coding Project Experience. In M. S. Khine (Ed.), Computational Thinking in the STEM Disciplines. Foundations and Research Highlights (pp. 213-226). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93566-9_11

García-Peñalvo, F. J., Reimann, D., Tuul, M., Rees, A., & Jormanainen, I. (2016). An overview of the most relevant literature on coding and computational thinking with emphasis on the relevant issues for teachers. Belgium: TACCLE3 Consortium. doi:https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.165123

García-Peñalvo, F. J., Rees, A. M., Hughes, J., Jormanainen, I., Toivonen, T., & Vermeersch, J. (2016). A survey of resources for introducing coding into schools. In F. J. García-Peñalvo (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality (TEEM’16) (Salamanca, Spain, November 2-4, 2016) (pp. 19-26). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi:https://doi.org/10.1145/3012430.3012491

González-González, C. S. (2019). State of the art in the teaching of computational thinking and programming in childhood education. Education in the Knowledge Society, 20, 17. doi:10.14201/eks2019_20_a17

Graham, J. (2018 July). Meet the robots teaching Singapore’s kids tech. The interactive toys reduce time children spend in front of screens. Apolitical. https://bit.ly/2J2gjJ0

IDA Singapore. (2015). IDA supports preschool centres with technology-enabled toys to build creativity and confidence in learning. https://bit.ly/2FnvtrC

IMDA. (2017). PlayMaker Changing the Game. https://bit.ly/2qxDXW1

Infocomm Media Development Authority (2017 November) PlayMaker Changing the Game. IMPACT INFOCOMM MEDIA TRENDS, INSIGHTS AND ANALYSIS. https://bit.ly/2qxDXW1

Infocomm Media Development Authority (2018 October) The game is on for PlayMaker. IMPACT INFOCOMM MEDIA TRENDS, INSIGHTS AND ANALYSIS. https://bit.ly/2Kw2zK0

Ioannou, M., & Bratitsis, T. (2017, July). Teaching the notion of Speed in Kindergarten using the Sphero SPRK robot. In Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), 2017 IEEE 17th International Conference on (pp. 311-312). USA: IEEE. doi:https://doi.org/10.1109/ICALT.2017.70

Jovanov, M., Stankov, E., Mihova, M., Ristov, S., & Gusev, M. (2016, April). Computing as a new compulsory subject in the Macedonian primary schools curriculum. In Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON), 2016 IEEE (pp. 680-685). USA: IEEE. doi:https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUCON.2016.7474623

KinderLab Robotics (OCTOBER 28, 2015). KIBO resources. Curriculum units. Where the Wild Things Are. https://bit.ly/2L5zvIN

Lillard, A. S. (2011). What Belongs in a Montessori Primary Classroom? Montessori Life, 23(3), 18.

Llorens-Largo, F., García-Peñalvo, F. J., Molero Prieto, X., & Vendrell Vidal, E. (2017). La enseñanza de la informática, la programación y el pensamiento computacional en los estudios preuniversitarios. Education in the Knowledge Society, 18(2), 7-17. doi:https://doi.org/10.14201/eks2017182717

Lockwood, J., & Mooney, A. (2017). Computational Thinking in Education: Where does it Fit? A systematic literary review. arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.07659.Pérez-Paredes, P., & Zapata-Ros, M. (2018). El pensamiento computacional, análisis de una competencia clave. Scotts Valley, CA, USA: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform. doi:https://doi.org/10.21585/ijcses.v2i1.26

Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational technology research and development, 50(3), 43-59. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02505024

Merrill, M. D. (2007). First principles of instruction: A synthesis. In R. A. Reiser & J. V. Dempsey (Eds.), Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed., pp. 62-71). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice-Hall.

Merrill, M. D. (2009). First principles of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth & A. A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional-design theories and models: Building a common knowledge base (Vol. III, pp. 41-56). New York: Routledge.

Montessori, M. (1928). Antropología Pedagógica. Barcelona: Araluce

Montessori, M. (1937). Método de la Pedagogía Científica. Barcelona: Araluce

Montessori, M. (1935). Manual práctico del método. Barcelona: Araluce

Montessori, M. (1967). The Absorbent Mind. 1949. Trans. Claude A. Claremont. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Montessori, M. (1991). The Advanced Montessori Method, Vol. 1. 1917. Trans. Florence Simmonds and Lily Hutchinson. Oxford: Clio.

Montessori, M. (1934). Psychogeometry. Trans. Benedetto Scoppola. Ed. Kay Baker. Laren, The Netherlands: Montessori-Pierson Publishing Company, 2011. Retrans. of Psychogeometry Spanish ed.

Montessori, M. (1989). The Secret of Childhood. Trans. Barbara Barclay Carter. Hyderabad: Orient Longman: 1963. Montessori, Maria. What You Should Know About Your Child. Oxford: Clio.

Nurul, A. (2016). Playmaker Project. The children were introduced to the robots named Bee-Bot and KIBO for this Playmaker Project. https://vimeo.com/179032348

Pérez-Paredes, P. & Zapata-Ros, M. (2018). El pensamiento computacional, análisis de una competencia clave. Scotts Valley, CA, USA: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform. https://amzn.to/2KumN6N

Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional-design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. II, pp. 5-29). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Reigeluth, C. M. (2016). Teoría instruccional y tecnología para el nuevo paradigma de la educación. RED. Revista de Educación a Distancia. 50. doi:https://doi.org/10.6018/red/50/1a

Robelen, E. W. (2011). STEAM: Experts make case for adding arts to STEM. Education week, 31(13), 8.

Sackett, G. (2013). The Mathematical Mind. https://bit.ly/2ICjYyB

Sackett, G. (2014). “The Lines that Make the Clouds” The Essence of the Mathematical Mind in the First Six Years of Life. NAMTA Journal, 39(2).

Sullivan, A., & Bers, M. U. (2015). Robotics in the early childhood classroom: Learning outcomes from an 8-week robotics curriculum in pre-kindergarten through second grade. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 26(1), 3-20. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10798-015-9304-5

Sullivan, A., & Bers, M. U. (2017). Dancing robots: integrating art, music, and robotics in Singapore’s early childhood centers. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 1-22

TACCLE 3 Consortium. (2017). TACCLE 3: Coding Erasmus + Project website. https://goo.gl/f4QZUA

Thompson, D., & Bell, T. (2013, November). Adoption of new computer science high school standards by New Zealand teachers. In Proceedings of the 8th Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education (pp. 87-90). USA: ACM. doi:https://doi.org/10.1145/2532748.2532759

Velázquez-Iturbide, J. Á. (2018). Report of the Spanish Computing Scientific Society on Computing Education in Pre-University Stages. In F. J. García-Peñalvo (Ed.), Proceedings TEEM’18. Sixth International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality (Salamanca, Spain, October 24th-26th, 2018) (pp. 2-7). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi:https://doi.org/10.1145/3284179.3284180

Velázquez Iturbide, J. Á., Bahamonde, A., Dabic, S., Escalona, M. J., Feito, F., Fernández Cabaleiro, S., . . . Zapata Ros, M. (2018). Informe del Grupo de Trabajo SCIE/CODDII sobre la enseñanza preuniversitaria de la informática. España: Sociedad Científica Informática de España, Conferencia de Decanos y Directores de Ingeniería Informática. https://goo.gl/dmCPgm

Villalba-Condori, K. O., García-Peñalvo, F. J., Lavonen, J., & Zapata-Ros, M. (2019). What Kinds of Innovations Do We Need in Education? In K. O. Villalba-Condori, F. J. García-Peñalvo, J. Lavonen, & M. Zapata-Ros (Eds.), Proceedings of the II Congreso Internacional de Tendencias e Innovación Educativa – CITIE 2018 (Arequipa, Perú, November 26-30, 2018) (pp. 9-15). Aachen, Germany: CEUR-WS.org.

Zapata-Ros, M. (2014). Coding y pre-coding. Blog Microposts, Tumblr https://bit.ly/31Lwt2a

Zapata-Ros, M. (Noviembre 2014). ¿Por qué “pensamiento computacional”? (I) Blog Pensamiento computacional y alfabetización digital / Computational thinking and computer literacy. https://bit.ly/2x5ENf8.

Zapata-Ros, M. (Diciembre 2014). Pensamiento computacional y alfabetización digital (I). Blog RED, Hypotheses. https://bit.ly/2Ruv0bZ

Zapata-Ros, M. (2015). Pensamiento computacional: Una nueva alfabetización digital. RED. Revista de Educación a Distancia (46), 1-47. doi:https://doi.org/10.6018/red/46/4

Zapata-Ros, M. (2018a). El pensamiento computacional en la transición entre culturas epistemológicas. Blog RED El aprendizaje en la Sociedad del Conocimiento. https://bit.ly/31NNc50

Zapata-Ros, M. (2018b). Pensamiento computacional. Una tercera competencia clave. (I) Blog RED El aprendizaje en la Sociedad del Conocimiento. https://bit.ly/2L85S9x








Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.