Obstrucción crónica de la vía aérea en la infancia. Causas más frecuentes. Tratamiento quirúrgico y endoscópico

Ana Isabel NAVAZO-EGUÍA, Juan Luis ANTÓN-PACHECO-SÁNCHEZ

Resumen


Introducción: La patología obstructiva de la vía aérea en la infancia incluye lesiones congénitas y adquiridas. Afortunadamente, es poco frecuente, pero plantea en la mayoría de los casos un desafío diagnóstico y terapéutico. Las técnicas endoscópicas han experimentado un gran avance en el tratamiento de estas lesiones, pero la cirugía abierta sigue teniendo un importante papel. Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo ha sido revisar las causas más frecuentes de obstrucción de la vía aérea central en el niño, su manejo diagnóstico y situación actual del tratamiento. Conclusiones: La patología obstructiva de la vía aérea en el niño requiere estabilización inmediata, evaluación detallada, planificación meticulosa y tratamiento individualizado. La cirugía de la vía aérea requiere de especialistas organizados en equipos multidisciplinarios cuyo objetivo principal es el diagnóstico y la resolución oportuna de las diversas malformaciones congénitas y lesiones adquiridas que afectan la laringe, tráquea y bronquios. En muchas ocasiones la decisión del tratamiento de elección no es fácil. La selección de la mejor opción quirúrgica se debe basar en las condiciones locales y generales del paciente. El cirujano debe dominar todas las técnicas disponibles, para resolver cada situación específica.

Palabras clave


estridor; estenosis laringotraqueales; reconstrucción laringotraqueal; broncoscopia diagnóstica y terapéutica

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14201/orl.15901

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