Contenido principal del artículo

Juan Andrés García Martín
Universidad Rey Juan Carlos
España
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8672-5149
Acceso anticipado, Estudios
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14201/fdp.27376
Derechos de autor Cómo citar

Resumen

La segregación racial instaurada en Estados Unidos a finales del siglo xix fue objeto de crítica y rechazo por determinados sectores de la sociedad norteamericana. Estos formaron diversas organizaciones que canalizaron este descontento e intentaron vertebrar una respuesta que pusiera fin a la situación de desigualdad. La nueva coyuntura nacional e internacional alcanzada durante las décadas de 1950 y 1960, acentuó la pugna por los derechos civiles a través de nuevas formas de resistencia y crítica al régimen segregacionista.Esta nueva situación generó una abundante producción musical que, en forma de canción protesta y canciones por la libertad, sirvió de vehículo de expresión al movimiento por los derechos civiles de la comunidad afroamericana, expresando sus aspiraciones y frustraciones.El objetivo del presente texto es recopilar y examinar el retrato que estas composiciones cultivaron de la segregación y de la lucha por los derechos civiles a través de los acontecimientos que jalonaron esta reivindicación. Para ello, este artículo tendrá en cuenta las acciones de protesta destinadas a conseguir una nueva legislación que pusiera fin a la segregación racial y las reacciones violentas que ello suscitó en los estados sureños. Finalmente, todo ello se realizará a través de un análisis de los contenidos líricos que nos permitirá determinar el posicionamiento de los cantautores investigados y determinar su aproximación a la realidad.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Detalles del artículo

Citas

Arsenault, R. (2006). Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice. Nueva York: Oxford University Press.
Barkley, E. F. (2007). Crossroads. The Multicultural Roots of America’s Popular Music. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Barnet, R. D., Nemerov, B., Taylor, M. R. (2004). The Story Behind the Song. 150 Songs that Chronicle the 20th Century. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Boucher, D. (2004). Images and Distorted Facts: Politics, Poetry and Protest in the Songs of Bob Dylan. En G. Browning, D. Boucher (eds.), The Political Art of Bob Dylan (pp. 134-169). Nueva York: Palgrave McMillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230522541_7
Broadwater, A. (2015). Marian Anderson. Diva and Humanitarian. Berkeley Heights: Enslow Publishers.
Brown Tindall, G. y Emory Shi, D. (2007). America. A Narrative History. Londres: W. W. Norton.
Brown, L. L. (2010). John Coltrane and Black America’s Quest for Freedom. Nueva York: Oxford University Press.
Brown, R. (2004). Bob Dylan’s Critique of Judgement: ‘Thinking’ about the Law. En G. Browning, D. Boucher (eds.), The Political Art of Bob Dylan (pp. 34-54). Nueva York: Palgrave McMillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230522541_3
Browning, G. (2004). Dylan and Lyotard: Is It Happening? En G. Browning, D. Boucher (eds.), The Political Art of Bob Dylan (pp. 105-133). Nueva York: Palgrave McMillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230522541_6
Bryant, N. (2006). Black Man Who Was Crazy Enough to Apply to Ole Miss. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 53, pp. 60-71.
Cahodas, N. (1998). Princess Noire. The Tumultuous Reign of Nina Simone. Nueva York: Pantheon Books.
Carawan, G. y Carawan, C. (1992). Sing for Freedom. The Story of the Civil Rights Movement Through its Songs. Bethlehem: A Sing Out Publication.
Carmichael, S. y Hamilton, C. V. (1992). Black Power: The Politics of Liberation. New York: Vintage Books.
Clinton, H. (2009). Revolution in the air. The Songs of Bob Dylan. 1957-1973. Chicago: Chicago Review Press.
Cohen, A. (2019). Move on Up: Chicago Soul Music and Black Cultural Power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226653174.001.0001
Collins, A. (2003). Songs Sung Red, White and Blue: The Stories Behind America’s Best-Loved Patriotic Songs. Nueva York: Harper Collins.
Denning, M. (1996). The Cultural Front: The Labouring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century. Nueva York: Verso.
Dunson, J. (1965). Freedom in the Air. Song Movements of the 60’s. Nueva York: International Publishers.
Eagles, C. W. (2009). The Fight for Men’s Minds: The Aftermath of the Ole Miss Riot of 1962. The Journal of Mississippi History, 71(1), pp. 1-53.
Eliot, M. (1989). Phil Ochs. The Death of a Rebel. Nueva York: Omnibus Press.
Estes, S. (2015). Charleston in Black and White. Race and Power in the South After the Civil Rights Movement. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. https://doi.org/10.5149/northcarolina/9781469622323.001.0001
Fernández Ferrer, A. (2007). La canción folk norteamericana. Granada: Universidad de Granada.
Forcucci, S. L. (1984). A Folk Song History of America. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Fuss, Ch. J. (1996). Joan Baez. A Bio-Bibliography. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Gaines, M. (2013). The Quadruple Consciousness of Nina Simone. Women&Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory, 23(2), pp. 248-267. https://doi.org/10.1080/0740770X.2013.825428
Glen, J. M. (1988). Highlander: No Ordinary School, 1932-1962. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press.
Gourse, L. (1997). The Billie Holiday Companion. Seven Decades of Commentary. Nueva York: Schirmer.
Greene, M. (2007). Billie Holiday. A Biography. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Greene, M. E. (1943). Josh White Starts Them Listening. Opportunity: Journal of Negro Life, January, 1943, pp. 112-114.
Greenway, J. (1953). American Folksong of Protest. Filadelfia: Pennsylvania University Press.
Hendrickson, P. (2005). The Ladies Before Rosa: Let Us Now Praise Unfamous Women. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 8(2), pp. 287-298. https://doi.org/10.1353/rap.2005.0076
Heylin, C. (2009). Revolution in the Air. The Songs of Bob Dylan, 1957-1973. Chicago: Chicago Review Press.
Hill, L. (2004). The Deacons for Defense. Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.
Horton, M.; Freire, P. (1990). We Make the Road by Walking: Conversations on Education and Social Change. Filadelfia: Temple University Press.
Hughes, Ch. (2009). Allowed to be Free: Bob Dylan and the Civil Rights Movement. En C. J. Sheehy y S. Thomas. Highway 61 revisited (pp. 44-59). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Jackson, M.; McLeod, E. W. (1966). Movin’ on up. Nueva York: Hawthorn Books.
Jones, M. (1995). Historia de Estados Unidos, 1607-1992. Madrid: Cátedra.
Kennedy, D. M. (2005). Entre el miedo y la libertad. Los EE. UU.: de la Gran Depresión al fin de la Segunda Guerra Mundial (1929-1945). Barcelona: Edhasa.
Kolin, P. C. (2009). Emmett Till in Music and Song. Southern Cultures, 15(3), pp. 115-138. https://doi.org/10.1353/scu.0.0072
Korstad, R. R. (2003). Civil Rights Unionism. Tobacco Workers and the Struggle for Democracy in the Mid-Twentieth Century South. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. https://doi.org/10.5149/uncp/9780807854549
Lafayette, B. (2008). Freedom Rider Diary. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.
Lafayette, B. (2013). In Peace and Freedom. Lexington: University of Kentucky.
Levy, Peter. B. (2018). The Great Uprising. London: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108381659
Light, A. (2016). What Happened, Miss Simone? A Biography. Nueva York: Crown Publishing Group.
Lowery, C. D. y Marszalek, J. F. (1992). Encyclopedia of the African-American Civil Rights. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Lynskey, D. (2011). 33 Revolutions per Minute. A History of Protest Songs from Billie Holiday to Greenday. Nueva York: Harper Collins.
Malone, B. C. (2008). The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Maly, M. T. (2005). Beyond Segregation: Multiracial and Multiethnic Neighbourhoods. Filadelfia: Temple University Press.
Margolick, D. (2000). Strange Fruit. Nueva York: The Ecco Press.
Martin, B. D. (2004). The Theatre Is in the Street: Politics and Public Performance in 1960s America. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
McAdam, D. (1988). Freedom Summer. Nueva York: Oxford University Press.
McGuire, P. (1983). A Jim Crow Army. Letters from Black Soldiers in World War II. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
McWhorter, D. (2008). The Enduring Courage of the Freedom Riders. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 61, pp. 66-73.
Merriam, A. (1964): The Anthropology of Music. Evanston: Northwestern University.
Mitchell, G. (2007). The North American Folk Music Revival. Burlington: Ashgate.
Morrison, M. K. C. (1987). Black Political Mobilization. Leadership, Power & Mass Behavior. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Peretti, B. W. (2009). Lift Every Voice. The History of African American Music. Lanham: Rowman&Littlefield Publishing Group.
Perry, S. (2013). Strange Fruit, Ekphrasis, and the Lynching Scene. Rhetoric Society Quarterly, 43(5), pp. 449-474. https://doi.org/10.1080/02773945.2013.839822
Reed, T. V (2005). The Art of Protest. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Reiland, R. (2016). Civil Rights Music. The Soundtrack of the Civil Rights Movement. Londres: Lexington Books.
Riley, T. (1999). Hard Rain. A Dylan Commentary. Nueva York: Da Capo Press.
Rotolo, S. (2008). A Freewheelin’ Time. A Memoir of Greenwich Village in the Sixties. Nueva York: Broadway Books.
Schumacher, M. (1996). There but fortune. The Life of Phil Ochs. Nueva York: Hyperion.
Simone, N. (1991). The Autobiography of Nina Simone with Steve Cleary. I Put a Spell on You. Nueva York: Pantheon Books.
Smith, R. J. (2012). The Life and Music of James Brown. Londres: Penguin.
Southern, E. (1997). The Music of Black Americans. A History. Nueva York: W & W. Norton Company.
Spener, D. (2016). We Shall Not Be Moved. Filadelfia: Temple University Press. https://doi.org/10.26530/OAPEN_605458
Stanton, M. (2003). Freedom Walk: Mississippi or Bust. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.
Taylor, J.; Israelson, C. (2015). The Political World of Bob Dylan. Freedom and Justice, Power and Sin. Nueva York: Palgrave McMillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137477477
Turck, M. C. (2009). Freedom Voices. Young Voices and the Struggle for Civil Rights. Chicago: Chicago Review Press.
Wald, E. (2002). Josh White. Society Blues. Nueva York: Routledge.
Wilde, L. (2004). The Cry of Humanity: Dylan’s Expressionist Period. En G. Browning y D. Boucher (eds.), The Political Art of Bob Dylan (pp. 79-104). Nueva York: Palgrave McMillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230522541_5
Williams, P. (1990). Performing artist. The music of Bob Dylan. Volume One. 1960-1973. Lancaster: Underwood-Miller.
Wood, A. L. (2009). Lynching and Spectacle. Witnessing Racial Violence in America, 1890-1940. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. https://doi.org/10.5149/9780807878118_wood