Main Article Content

Anahiby Anyel Becerril
Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación (INFOTEC). Center for Research and Innovation in Information and Communication Technologies
Mexico
Biography
Vol. 7 No. 2 (2018), Articles, pages 71-80
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14201/ADCAIJ2018727180
Accepted: Sep 13, 2018
Copyright

Abstract

The fourth industrial revolution, in which we transit, is preceded by a digital economy based fundamentally on information. And although estimates have been made on whether the data moving in the digital economy flow are from sensors or machines or come from each of us, one thing is certain, all information has a monetary value. Within this flow of information are our personal data. Every moment that we use an electronic device we leave behind vestiges of our life, which are collected by the machines to generate value to the companies. In this way our information is subject to market rules, supply and demand. We have become intangible beings, mercantilized, giving our bodies of data to the science, innovation and technological development. With the use of technologies such as Big Data and IoT, more information less is better. The speed with which our information is collected and treated as well as commercialized is undermining confidence in the digital market. Concern about the misuse of our personal data, or about the information we know about us, raises fundamental questions about privacy, ownership of information and human rights. The question of who should benefit from products and services based on digital data (generated by users) are the main uncertainties that shape the digital market opportunities. But, how can we measure trust in companies if we are not aware of the value our personal information has in the digital economy? What is the value that, as headlines, we give to our personal data? Perhaps therein lies the problem of allowing others to have power over our information. To promote the digital market and trust in it, we need to know the value of our information. Becoming aware of the fact and consequences of collecting our data, as well as its monetary value and importance in the digital economy, is the first beneficial step towards the empowerment of our information

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

References

Anderson, M., 2015, 92% of consumers now read online reviews for local businesses!, https://www.brightlocal.com/2015/08/20/92-of-consumers-now-read-online-reviews-for-local-businesses/ (Date of consultation: June 22, 2016)

Araujo Carranza, E., 2009, El Derecho a la Información y la protección de datos personales, Porrúa, Mexico.

Bauman, Z., & Lyon, D., 2015, Vigilancia Líquida, Austral, Barcelona.

BBC Mundo, 2015, Facebook aumentó sus ganancias en más de 25% durante 2015, http://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias/2016/01/160128_tecnologia_fecebook_aumento_beneficios_il (Date of consultation: June 22, 2016)

Brynjolfsson, E., & Mcafee, A., 2016, The Second Machine Age. Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a time of Brilliant Technologies, Norton, New York.

Buckles, S., For $ale Personal Data, http://www.shawnbuckles.nl/dataforsale/ (Date of consultation: June 20, 2016)

CISCO, 2012, Cisco Connected World Technology Report (CCWTR), Cisco, United States.

Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2015-2020 White Paper, http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/mobile-white-paper-c11-520862.html (Date of consultation: June 20, 2016)

Cisco. The Zettabyte Era-trends and Analysis, http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/vni-hyperconnectivity-wp.html (Date of consultation: June 20, 2016)

Curtis, S., How much is your personal data worth?, The Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/12012191/How-much-is-your-personal-data-worth.html (Date of consultation: June 20, 2016)

Ehrenberg, B., 2014, How much is your personal data worth?, The Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2014/apr/22/how-much-is-personal-data-worth (Date of consultation: June 20, 2016)

EUROPEAN COMISSION, COM (2016) 180. Advancing the Internet of Things in Europe. Digitising European Industry. Reaping the full benefits of a Digital Single Market. European Comission, Brussels, 2016.

Garriga Domínguez, A., 2016, Nuevos Retos para la Protección de Datos Personales. En la Era del Big Data y la Computación Ubicua, Dykinson, Madrid.

Gónzalez, G., & Scherrer, A., 2015, Big Data and smart devices and their impact on privacy, European Union, Brussels.

Graux, H., Ausloos, J., & Valcke, P., 2012, El derecho al olvido en la era de Internet. In, El debate sobre la privacidad y al seguridad en la Red: regulación y Mercados, Barcelona, pages 107-122, Fundación Telefónica.

Hult, R., 2016, What does the internet of things mean for our personal privacy?, World Economic Forum, https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/03/what-does-the-internet-of-things-mean-for-our-personal-privacy/ (Date of consultation: June 22, 2016)

IBM, ¿Qué es Big Data?, https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/ssa/local/im/que-es-big-data/ (Date of consultation: June 20, 2016)

Interactive Adversiting Bureau (IAB), 2016, IV Estudio sobre actividad de las marcas en Medios Sociales, IAB Research, Spain.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Report on Measuring the Information Society 2015. Executive Summary, ITU, Geneva, 2015. KUNEVA, M., "Targeting and Profiling". Roundtable on Online Data Collection, European Union, Brussels, 2009.

Liem, C., & Petropoulos, G., 2016, The economic value of personal data for online platforms, firms and consumers, The London School of Economics and Political Science, http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/businessreview/2016/01/19/the-economic-value-of-personal-data-for-online-platforms-firms-and-consumers/ (Date of consultation: June 20, 2016)

Mackinnon, K. A., 2012. User Generated Content vs. Advertising: Do consumers Trust the Word of Others over Advertisers?, Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 3(1), pages14-22.

Marcus, A., 2015, Data and the fourth industrial revolution, World Economic Forum, https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2015/12/data-and-the-fourth-industrial-revolution/ (Date of consultation: June 20, 2016)

Martínez Pastor, E., 2013, La publicidad comportamental online y la protección de los datos personales. In La protección de los datos personales en Internet ante la innovación tecnológica: riesgos, amenazas y respuestas desde la perspectiva jurídica, pages 291-306. Aranzandi.

Martínez, J., Resultados de Google: supera los 21.300 millones de dólares de ingresos y bate las expectativas, El Economista, http://www.elespanol.com/economia/mercados/20160201/98990414_0.html (Date of consultation: June 20, 2016)

Mayer-Shónberger, V., & Cukier, K., 2013, Big Data: la revolución de los datos masivos, Turner, Madrid.

Moiny, J.-P., 2011, Facebook y la Directiva 95/46:algunas reflexiones. In Protección de datos personales en la Sociedad de la Información y la vigilancia, pages 277-319. La Ley.

Ng, I., Value and worth:creating markets in the digital economy, Innovorsa, Cambridge, 2013.

Organization For Economic Cooperation And Development (OECD), 2013, Exploring the Economics of Personal Data: A Survey of Methodologies for Measuring Monetary Value, OECD Publishing, 2013.

Pentland, A., 2013, The Data-Driven Society, Scientific American 309, pages 78-83. - https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican1013-78

Ramonet, I., 2015, El imperio de la vigilancia, Clave Intelectual, Madrid.

Rifkin, J., 2013, La era del acceso. La revolución de la nueva economía, Paidós, Barcelona.

Rifkin, J., 2014, La sociedad del coste marginal cero. El Internet de Todas las Cosas, el procomún colaborativo y el eclipse del capitalismo, Paidós, Barcelona.

Schneier, B., 2010, Schneier on Security, https://www.schneier.com/essays/archives/2010/07/a_taxonomy_of_social.html (Date of consultation: June 20, 2016)

Simon, P., 2013, Too Big to Ignore: the Business Case for Big Data, SAS Institute Inc., North Carolina. - https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119204039

Staiano, J., Oliver, N., Lepri, B., De Oliveira, R., Caraviello, M., & Sebe, N., 2014, Money Walks: a Human-Centric Study on the Economics of Personal Mobile Data, UbiComp '14 Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Joint Con-ference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing, 14, pages 583-594. - https://doi.org/10.1145/2632048.2632074

Steel, E., Locke, C., Cadman, E., & Freese, B., How much is your personal data worth?, The Financial Times, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/927ca86e-d29b-11e2-88ed-00144feab7de.html (Date of consultation: June 22, 2016)

Suárez Sánchez-Ocana, A., 2012, Desnudando a Google: la inquietante realidad que no quieren que conozcas, Deusto, Madrid.

The Internet In Real Time, http://pennystocks.la/internet-in-real-time/ (Date of consultation: June 05, 2016).

The Internet In Real Time, http://pennystocks.la/battle-of-internet-giants/ (Date of consultation: June 22, 2016).

Tucker, P., 2013, Has Big Data Made Anonymity Impossible?, MIT Technology Review, pages 2-4.

United Nations (UN), 2014, The right to privacy in the digital age, United Nations, New York.

World Bank (WB), 2016, World Development Report 2016: Digital Dividends, World Bank, Washington DC.

World Economic Forum (FEM), 2013, Unlocking the Value of Personal Data: From Collection to Usage, World Economic Forum, Geneva.

World Economic Forum (FEM), 2014, Rethinking Personal Data: Trust and Context in User-Centred Data Ecosystems, World Economic Forum, Geneva.

Zhang, J., 2015, Final Group Project. Personal Data Stores, Cambridge University.