Main Article Content

Felicitas Mokom
School of Computer Science, University of Windsor, Windsor
Canada
Ziad Kobti
School of Computer Science, University of Windsor, Windsor
Canada
Vol. 2 No. 2 (2013), Articles, pages 25-35
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14201/ADCAIJ2013252535
Accepted: Aug 31, 2013
Copyright

Abstract

Although restraint use has increased primarily in developed countries, vehicle accident-related injuries and deaths continue to be a problem. Alongside lack of restraint use, studies involving suboptimal restraint use have gained recent popularity. In this study we investigate the use of social influence forinterventions to counter emerging suboptimal restraint use in groups of agents.A multi-agent simulation model is provided where dominant individuals use randomly assigned influence rates to repeatedly alter the knowledge of lessinfluential group members. Cultural influence is implemented via a cultural algorithm and used to simulate individuals affected by beliefs in the community. Objectives include investigating the emergence of patterns of restraint selection and use as well as interventions targeted at more influential agents. Results demonstrate that prominent patterns of behaviour similar to the influentialmembers of the groups do emerge. Furthermore, interventions targeted at influential group members outperform interventions targeted at a percentage of the population at large. Interventions succeed at some level both in the presence and absence of cultural influence.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

References

ACAY, Daghan L, Tilder, G., Sonenberg, L. Extending agent capabilities: tools vs agents. Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology (2008), pp. 259-265.

BLAIR, John, Perdios, A., Babul, S., Young, K., Beckles, J., Pike, I., Cripton, P., Sasges, D., Mulpuri, K., Desapriya, E. The appropriate and inappropriate use of child restraint seats in Manitoba. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion 15(3) (2008), pp. 151-156.

EBEL, Beth, Koepsell, T, Bennett, E., Rivara, F. Use of child booster seats in motor vehicles following a community campaign: a controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 289 (2003), pp. 879-884.

BROWN, Julie, McCaskill, M.E., Henderson, M., Bilston, L.E. Serious injury is associated with suboptimal restraint use in child motor vehicle occupants. Journal of Paediatrics 42 (2006), pp. 345-349.

BRUCE, Beth, Snowdon, A.W., Cunningham, C., Cramm, C.L., Whittle, K., Correale, H., Barwick, M., Piotrowski, C., Warda, L., Harold, J. Predicting parents’ use of booster seats. Injury Prevention 17(5) (2011), pp. 313-318.

BRUCKNER, Richard, Rocker, J. Car safety. Pediatrics in Review 30 (2009), pp. 463-469.

BULGER, Eileen M, Kaufman, R., Mock, C. Childhood crash injury patterns associated with restraint misuse: implications for field triage. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 23(1) (2008), pp. 9-15.

CUNNINGHAM, Charles E., Bruce, B.S., Snowdon, A.W., Chen, Y., Kolga, C., Piotrowski, C., Warda, L., Correale, H., Clark, E., Barwick, M. Modeling improvements in booster seat use: a discrete choice conjoint experiment. Accident Analysis and Prevention 43 (2011), pp. 1999-2009.

FELDMAN, Daniel, C. The development and enforcement of group norms. The Academy of Management Review 9(1) (1984), pp. 47-53.

HOWARD, Andrew, Automobile restraints for children: a review for clinicians. Canadian Medical Association Journal 167 (2002), pp. 769-773.

HOWARD, Andrew, Snowdon, A., MacArthur, C. Removing barriers to booster seat use in canada. Pediatrics & Child Health 9 (2004), pp. 295-297.

KOBTI, Ziad, Snowdon, A., Rahaman, S., Dunlop, T., Kent, R. A cultural algorithm to guide driver learning in applying child vehicle safety restraint. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (2006), pp. 1111-1118.

MOKOM, Felicitas, Kobti, Z. Evolution of artifact capabilities. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (2011), pp. 476-483.

MOKOM, Felicitas, Kobti, Z. Suboptimal restraint use as an emergent norm via social influence. Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence (2013), pp. 545-552.

OPP, Karl-Dieter. How do norms emerge? An outline f a theory. Mind & Society (2001), pp. 101-128.

PEDEN, Margie, Scurfield, R., Sleet, D., Mohan, D., Hyder, A.A., Jarawan, E., Mathers, C., eds. World report on road traffic injury prevention. World Health Organization (2004).

PEDEN, Margie, Oyegbite, K., Ozanne-Smith, J., Hyder, A.A., Branche, C., Rahman, A.F., Rivara, F., Bartolomeos, K., eds. World report on child injury prevention. World Health Organization (2008).

RANGEL, Shawn J., Martin, C.A., Brown, R.L., Garcia, V.F., Falcone Jr, R.A. Alarming trends in the improper use of motor vehicle restraints in children: implications for public policy and the development of race-based strategies for improving compliance. Journal of Pediatric Surgery 43 (2008), pp. 200-207.

REYNOLDS, Robert G, Peng, B. Cultural algorithms: modeling of how cultures learn to solve problems. Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (2004), pp. 166-172.

SAVARIMUTHU, Bastin T.R., Cranefield, S. Norm creation, spreading and emergence: a survey of simulation models of norms in multi-agent systems. Multiagent and Grid Systems 7(1) (2011), pp. 21-54.

SEN, Sandip, Airiau, S. Emergence of norms through social learning. Proceedings of the 20th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (2007), pp. 1507-1512.

SNOWDON, Anne, Hussein, A., Kolga, C., Bruce, B., Boase, P., Purc-Stevenson, R., Howard, A. Are we there yet? Canada’s progress towards achieving road safety vision 2010 for children travelling in vehicles. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion 16(4) (2009), pp. 231-237.