Hablando con y sobre políticos en Twitter: un análisis de tweets que contienen menciones de candidatos en las elecciones presidenciales brasileñas

Débora Maria Moura MEDEIROS, Mariella BASTIAN, Damian TRILLING


While Twitter has become an increasingly important platform for public opinion formation, little is known about its use in recent Latin American election campaigns. We therefore investigate the case of the presidential elections in Brazil in October 2014, in order to analyze communication structures in actual and para-social interactions with presidential candidates. In particular, while Twitter makes it easy for ordinary citizens to express their opinion online, it is maybe even more important that they can also address and communicate with persons who would otherwise not be reachable at all. Politicians are probably the most important group in this regard. Based on N = 1,891,657 tweets containing an @mention of a candidate in the Brazilian elections of 2014, we investigate which actual or para-social interactions with the candidates take place. Furthermore, because framing literature suggests that all actors involved in a discussion on social media will try to highlight specific aspects and interpretations of issues and events, we used techniques of co-word analysis to investigate the ways in which the main candidates were framed by the Twitter users. The results give insight into the deliberative potential of Twitter: they show how the candidates are presented to the social media community and thus how this presentation may be reflected in public opinion.

Palabras clave

Twitter; Brazil; public sphere; elections; framing; Twitter; Brasil; discurso público; elecciones; frames

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


i. (2014) Global Twitter Trends: Brazil. Available at: http:// www.360i.com/reports/content/global-twitter-trends-brazil/.

Adamic, L. and N. Glance (2005) The Political Blogosphere and the 2004 U.S. Election: Divided They Blog. Paper presented at the 3rd International Workshop on Link discovery.

Araújo, Thiago (27 August 2014) É oficial: Twitter elege Eduardo Jorge do Partido Verde (PV) como presidente da zoeira e grande vencedor do Debate da Band. Brasil Post, available at http:// www.brasilpost.com.br/2014/08/27/eduardo-jorge-zueiratwitter_ n_5719901.html

Arceneaux, Noah and Amy Schmitz Weiss (2010) “Seems stupid until you try it: press coverage of Twitter”, 2006-9. New Media & Society, 12(8), 1262–1279.

Azevedo, Fernando Antônio (2006) “Mídia e democracia no Brasil: relações entre o sistema de mídia e o sistema político”. Opinião Pública 12(1): 88–113.

Bastian, Mariella and Damian Trilling (2013) “An unfulfilled promise: Twitter and the dictatorial past in Brazil”. Revista Brasileira de Políticas de Comunicação (4): 51–68.

Borra, Erik and Bernhard Rieder (2014). “Programmed method: developing a toolset for capturing and analyzing tweets.” Aslib Journal of Information Management 66(3): 262–278.

Coleman, Stephen and Jay G. Blumler (2009) The Internet and democratic citizenship: Theory, practice and policy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

ComScore (2014) Consumidores Digitais: Brazil Digital Future in Focus 2014 (ComScore). Available at http://www.slideshare. net/ConsumidoresDigitais/consumidores-digitais-brazil-digital- future-in-focus-2014-comscore

Conover, M. D., J. Ratkiewicz, M. Francisco, B. Goncalves, A. Flammini, and F. Menczer (2011) Political polarization on Twitter. Paper presented at the ICWSW 2011: Proceedings of the 5th International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, Menlo Park, CA: Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI).

Costa, Caio Túlio (2011) “O Papel da Internet na Conquista dos Votos de Marina Silva.” Interesse Nacional (13): 59-75.

Dahlberg, Lincoln (2011) “Re-constructing digital democracy: An outline of four ´positions´.” New Media & Society 13(6): 855– 872.

Dinatale, Martín and Alejandra Gallo (2010) Luz, cámara… ¡gobiernen! Nuevos paradigmas de la comunicación presidencial en América Latina. Buenos Aires: Konrad Adenauer Foundation. Dylko, Ivan B., Michael A. Beam, Kristen D. Landreville, and Nicholas

Geidner (2011) “Filtering 2008 US presidential election news on YouTube by elites and nonelites: An examination of the democratizing potential of the internet.” New Media & Society 14(5): 832–849.

e.life. (2012). Trending BR. Available at http://elife.com.br/paper/ trending-br.pdf.

Entman, Robert M. (1993) “Framing: Towards clarification of a fractured paradigm.” Journal of Communication 43(4): 51–58.

Freelon, Deen G. (2010) “Analyzing online political discussion using three models of democratic communication.” New Media & Society 12(7): 1172–1190.

Garza, A. (2014) “A Herstory of the #BlackLivesMatter Movement.” The Feminist Wire.

Garzia, Diego (2011) “The Personalization of Politics in Western Democracies: Causes and Consequences on Leader-Follower Relationships”. The Leadership Quarterly, 22: 697-709.

Guerra, P. H. C., W. Meira Jr., R. Cardie, and R. Kleinberg (2013) A Measure of Polarization on Social Media Networks Based on Community Boundaries. Paper presented at the ICWSM 2013, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, July 8-11, 2013.

Hänggli, Regula and Hanspeter Kriesi (2012) “Frame Construction and Frame Promotion (Strategic Framing Choices)”. American Behavioral Scientist 56(3): 260–278.

Hoffmann, Jochen and Juliana Raupp (2006) “Politische Personalisierung. Disziplinäre Zugänge und theoretische Folgerungen”. Publizistik: Vierteljahreshefte fur Kommunikationsforschung 51(4): 456-478.

Hong, Sounman and Daniel Nadler (2012) “Which candidates do the public discuss online in an election campaign?: The use of social media by 2012 presidential candidates and its impact on candidate salience”. Government Information Quarterly 29: 455–461.

Interagentes (2015). Manifestações do dia 12 de abril. Retrieved from http://interagentes.net/?p=527

Internet Live Stats (2014) Brazil Internet Users. Available at http:// www.internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country/.

Jacobs, Kristof and Niels Spierings (2014) “... Maar win je er stemmen mee? De impact van Twittergebruik door politici bij de Nederlandse Tweede Kamerverkiezingen”. Tijdschrift voor Communicatiewetenschap 42(1): 22–38.

Jungherr, Andreas (2015) Analyzing political communication with digital trace data: The role of Twitter messages in social science research. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

Kang, J. C. (May 4, 2015) “Our Demand is Simple: Stop Killing Us”. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes. com/2015/05/10/magazine/our-demand-is-simple-stop-killing- us.html?_r=0

Kruikemeier, Sanne, Guda van Noort, Rens Vliegenthart, and Claes de Vreese (2014) “Unraveling the effects of active and passive forms of political Internet use: Does it affect citizens‘ political involvement?” New Media & Society 16(6): 903–920.

Larsson, Anders O. and Hallvard Moe (2011) “Studying political microblogging: Twitter users in the 2010 Swedish election campaign”. New Media & Society 14(5): 729-747.

Lee, Eun-Ju and Soo Yun Shin (2012) “Are they talking to me? Cognitive and affective effects of interactivity in politicians’ twitter communication”. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking 15(10): 515–20.

Miguel, Luis Felipe (2007) “A política, a comunicação política e a opinão pública. Mídia e opinão pública”. In Lucia Avelar and Antônio Octávio Cintra (eds.), Sistema político Brasileiro: uma introdução. 2nd ed. São Paulo: Editora Unesp, 403–415.

Murthy, D. (2011) “Twitter: Microphone for the masses?” Media, Culture & Society, 33(5), 779–789.

Parmelee, John H and Shannon L. Bichard (2012) Politics and the Twitter revolution: How tweets influence relationships between political leaders and the public. Plymouth, UK: Lexington.

Rasmussen, Terje (2008) “The Internet and differentiation in the political public sphere”. Nordicom Review, 29, 73–84.

Rincón, Omar (2013) Der Kampf der Nagetiere. Medien und Politik in Lateinamerika. Berlin: Friedrich Ebert Foundation.

Serra, Bruna (22 September 2014) “As melhores tiradas de Eduardo Jorge no Twitter”. Available at http://congressoemfoco. uol.com.br/noticias/as-melhores-tiradas-de-eduardo-jorge-notwitter/

Sousa, Leonardo Gomes (2010) O Uso das Mídias Sociais em campanhas eleitorais: Estudo de caso da campanha virtual da candidata Marina Silva nas Eleições de 2010. (Bachelor), Brasília: Universidade de Brasília.

Trilling, Damian (2015) “Two different debates? Investigating the relationship between a political debate on TV and simultaneous comments on Twitter”. Social Science Computer Review, 33(3), 259–276.

Werz, Nikolaus (2010) Lateinamerika. Eine Einführung. Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung.

Yardi, S. and D. Boyd (2010) “Dynamic debates: An analysis of group polarization over time on twitter”. Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society, 20, 1-36.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14201/rlop.22319

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.