Composición del electorado en elecciones con voto obligatorio y voluntario: un estudio cuasi experimental de la participación electoral en Chile

Bernardo MACKENNA

Resumen


En este trabajo se explora el efecto de las instituciones electorales en la composición de los electorados, particularmente el tipo de inscripción y el carácter de voluntariedad/obligatoriedad del voto. Explotando la reciente reforma electoral en Chile a través de un diseño cuasi experimental, se compara la composición de los electorados antes y después de la reforma, en base a los principales predictores sugeridos por la literatura especializada. Entre los hallazgos centrales se encuentran un fuerte efecto de la edad en ambos contextos normativos, la importancia de la educación y de la atención política tras la reforma, y la heterogeneidad de estos efectos entre las generaciones políticas. Adicionalmente, se cuantifica el efecto de la reforma electoral para distintos grupos, mostrando que ésta no afectó a todos por igual. Finalmente, se concluye con una discusión sobre las implicancias democráticas de la reforma electoral y sus consecuencias en el sistema político.

Palabras clave


participación electoral; voto obligatorio; cuasi experimentos; voter turnout; compulsory voting; quasi-experiments

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14201/rlop.22307

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