Efectos de la exposición a los medios de comunicación y la discusión en las actitudes hacia la política

Gerardo MALDONADO, Mariano TORCAL

Resumen


Teniendo en cuenta que la deliberación entre los ciudadanos y su interés en asuntos políticos son características ideales de una democracia moderna, en este trabajo se argumenta que la deliberación política puede tener algunos efectos negativos en actitudes de los ciudadanos hacia la política. Más preciso, esperamos establecer bajo qué condiciones la exposición a la información heterogénea de los medios de comunicación y la discusión entre intermediarios que están en desacuerdo deteriora el interés del ciudadano en política y la confianza política. Usando los datos del Proyecto Comparado de Elecciones Nacionales (CNEP) y, tras discutir algunas posiciones contradicciones de la literatura sobre este tema, va a mostrarse que, bajo ciertas circunstancias, estar expuesto a discusiones políticas en desacuerdo con las del propio entrevistado propicia un menor interés en la política, algo que no ocurre con la exposición a medios de información divergente. Sin embargo, esos efectos negativos están condicionados por el conocimiento político, por la fuerza de la identificación partidista a nivel individual y, a nivel contextual, por la polarización y fragmentación del sistema de partidos. Por último veremos que esto sólo afecta al interés pero no a la confianza política.

Palabras clave


interés en la política; eficacia política; medios de comunicación; discusión política; heterogeneidad de información política; polarización del sistema de partidos; fragmentación del sistema de partidos; political interest; political efficacy; mass media;

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14201/rlop.22301

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