Contenido principal del artículo

Filipa Martins Baptista LÃ
UNED
España
Biografía
Vol. 37 Núm. 1 (2019), Artículos, Páginas 41-59
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14201/et20193714159
Aceptado: jul 10, 2019

Resumen

Tocar un instrumento musical mejora los resultados del aprendizaje de los niños en varios niveles más que cualquier otra actividad extracurricular. La mayor neuroplasticidad que la práctica instrumental promueve se refleja en una mayor capacidad de reorganización cerebral, fundamental en todos los tipos de aprendizaje. Estos beneficios se extienden también al aprendizaje del canto que, además, mejora la salud física y mental, lo que supone repercusiones sociales y para la salud pública. Así mismo, tocar un instrumento musical y cantar son consideradas actividades extracurriculares, particularmente en los sistemas educativos en el sur de Europa. No obstante, no todos los alumnos pueden beneficiarse de ellas, ya que su realización depende de los recursos físicos y financieros de las escuelas. Basado en un análisis de la bibliografía existente, este trabajo propone un modelo de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la música a través de la introducción de clases de canto, individuales y en grupo. De hecho, la voz es un instrumento musical disponible para todos, independientemente de la edad y condición socioeconómica. Se propone la inclusión de información de retorno como recurso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, usando las tecnologías como recurso de aprendizaje y siguiendo un modelo centrado en la relación profesor-alumno. Por un lado, porque la información de retorno es más eficaz en el aprendizaje de actividades de coordinación neuromotora y, por otro, porque un modelo centrado en la relación profesor-alumno se basa en la congruencia, el retorno positivo y la empatía, para la promoción de una consciencia guiada sobre el proceso de aprendizaje y, consecuentemente, conseguir un aumento de los niveles superiores de metacognición y autorregulación. El canto en las escuelas podrá también contribuir a la implementación de una enseñanza más integrada, promoviendo la coordinación de contenidos de diferentes asignaturas, con impacto en la integración y cohesión social de todos los intervinientes. 

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