The Relevance of Cognitive Resources in Synchronized Swimming Trainings: the case of scaffoldings and affordances

  • Dafne Muntanyola
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Centre d'Estudis Sociològics sobre la Vida Quotidiana i el Treball (QUIT) Institut d'Estudis del Treball (IET) dafne.muntanyola[at]
  • David Casacuberta
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Departament de Filosofia
  • Anna Estany
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Departament de Filosofia


In synchronized swimming, highly competitive trainings arts and sports elements converge. We wonder how scaffoldings and affordances contribute to the stabilization of cognitive resources among the trainer and swimmers of the Spanish Olympic synchronized swimming team. We dwell on what is taken as cognitive resources and the role of scaffolding and affordances. We analyze communication patterns and examine the work process leading to synchronized swimming. We propose a cognitive ethnography on training, an innovative method that explains the patterns of activity of local interactions among participants in sports. We applied ELAN program and incorporated Jeffersonian transcriptions that come from conversational analysis method. Results show how the training process involves interaction in an environment that includes social agents, material resources and conceptual models that feed each other.
  • Referencias
  • Cómo citar
  • Del mismo autor
  • Métricas
Araújo, D., Teques, P., Hernández-Mendo, A., Reiga, R. y Anguera. M. T. (2015). La toma de decisión, ¿es una conducta observable?: Discusión sobre diferentes perspectivas teóricas utilizadas en el estudio del rendimiento deportivo. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 16(1), 183-196.

Muntanyola-Saura, Dafne (2014). A cognitive account of expertise: Why Rational Choice Theory is (often) a Fiction. Theory y Psychology, 24, 19-39. -

Muntanyola-Saura, Dafne (2015). Distributed Marking in Sport Corrections: A Conversation Analysis of Synchronized Swimming. Journal of Cognitive Science, 16(3), 338-354. -

Muntanyola-Saura, Dafne y Kirsh, D. (2010). Marking as Physical Thinking: A Cognitive Ethnography of Dance. En L. A. Pérez Miranda y Aitor Izagirre Madariaga (Eds.), Proceedings of the IWCogSc-10 ILCLI International Workshop on Cognitive Science (pp. 339-355). Donosti: Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea-Servicio de Publicaciones.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). The Systems Model of Creativity. Dordrecht: Springer. -

Clark, A. (1997). Being there: Putting body, brain, and world together again. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

D'Andrade, R. (1995). The Development of Cognitive Anhtropology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. -

Cicourel, Aaron. (2006). The Interaction of discourse, cognition and culture. Discourse Studies, 8(1), 25-29. -

Garfinkel, Harold. (1967). Studies in Ethnometodology. Los Angeles: Polity Press.

Gibson, J.J., (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Goffman, Erwin. (1961). Asylums. New York: Anchor Books.

Hutchins, E. (1995a). Cognition in the wild. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hutchins, Ed. (2005). Material Anchors for Conceptual Blends. Journal of Pragmatics, 37, 10. -

Keevallik, L. (2010). Bodily quoting in dance correction. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 43(4), 401-426. -

Kirsh, D., y Maglio, P. (1994). On distinguishing epistemic from pragmatic action. Cognitive Science, 18, 513-549. -

Kirsh, D. (2013). Embodied Cognition and the Magical Future of Interaction Design. ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction, 20, 1-30. -

Knorr-Cetina, Karin. (1999). Epistemic Cultures. Cambridge: Harvard UP.

Lozares, C. (ed.) (2007). Interacción, redes sociales y ciencias cognitivas. Granada: Comares.

Mascolo, M. F. (2005). Change processes in development: The concept of coactive scaffolding. New Ideas in Psychology, 23(3), 185-196. -

Michaels, C. F. (2003). Affordances: Four points of debate. Ecological psychology, 15(2), 135-148. -

Minsky, M. (1975). A framework for representing knowledge. En P. H. Winston (Ed.), The psychology of computer vision. New York: McGraw-Hill Book.

Mondada, L. (2009). Video recording practices and the reflexive constitution of the interactional order: some systematic uses of the split-screen technique. Human Studies, 32(1), 67-99. -

Mountjoy, M. (1999). The basics of synchronized swimming and its injuries. Clinics in sports medicine, 18(2), 321-336. -

Maglio, P. P., Matlock, T., Raphaely, D., Chernicky, B., y Kirsh D. (1999). Interactive skill in Scrabble. In Proceedings of Twenty-First Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Noë, Alva (2004). Action in Perception. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Noë, A. (2015). Strange Tools: Art and Human Nature. New York: Hill and Wang.

Norman, D. (1999). Affordance, conventions and design. Interactions, 6(3), 38-43. -

Pea, R. D. (2004). The social and technological dimensions of scaffolding and related theoretical concepts for learning, education, and human activity. The journal of the learning sciences, 13(3), 423-451. -

Sacks, H., Schegloff, E. y Jefferson, G. (1978). A Simplest Systematic for the Organization of Turn-Taking of Conversation. En Jay Schenkein (Ed.), Studies in the Organization of Conversational Interaction. New York: Academic Press.

Smith, O. F. (2007). Object Artifact, Image Artifacts and Conceptual Artifacts: Beyond the object into the Event. Artifact, 1(1), 4-6. -

Stoffregen, T. A., Bardy, B. G. y Mantel, B. (2006). Affordances in the design of enactive systems. Virtual Reality, 10(1), 4-10. -

Sydnor, S. (1998). A history of synchronized swimming. Body Politics, 21, 252-267.

Vygotsky, Lev. (1978). Interaction between learning and development. En L. Vygotsky (Ed.), Mind in society (pp. 79-91). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Wacquant, Loic. (2004). Body and Soul: Notes of an Apprentice Boxer. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wilson, V. E. (1977). Objectivity and effect of order of appearance in judging of synchronized swimming meets. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 44(1), 295-298. -

Williams, Robert F. (2004). Making Meaning from a Clock: Material Artifacts and Conceptual Blending in Time-Telling Instruction. Ph.D. diss., University of California.
Muntanyola, D., Casacuberta, D., & Estany, A. (2018). The Relevance of Cognitive Resources in Synchronized Swimming Trainings: the case of scaffoldings and affordances. ArtefaCToS. Revista De Estudios Sobre La Ciencia Y La tecnología, 7(1), 51–73.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Anna Estany

Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Departament de Filosofia
Anna Estany es profesora de Filosofía de la Ciencia en el Departamento de Filosofía de la Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona y miembro fundador del Centro de Estudios de Historia de la Ciencia de la UAB. Integrante de la Sociedad Española de Lógica, Filosofía y Metodología de la Ciencia, ha publicado, entre otros, los libros Modelos de cambio científico (1990), Introducción a la filosofía de la ciencia (1993) y Manual de prácticas de filosofía de la ciencia (2001).