How the Web started: History and timeline of hypertext till HTML 4.0 (1990-99)


This paper attempts to review the development of the Web until 1999, the date when it is published the standard HTML 4.0. In this paper it is also explained the development of HTML standard, which is currently the primary infrastructure where the World Wide Web is built. During this time we focus on some of the most noteworthy events of this period, we collect the set of institutions that today lead the Web and we outline some of the most significant innovations and the first conflicts of interest that rise up in the paradigm of public and private players and different organizations. Finally, as an appendix we deal with technologies and associations that deserve a separate section of this retrospective and the famous «browser wars» that have had a major impact on the way that today´s companies, standards and business models are commanded.
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Tabarés Gutiérrez, R. (2015). How the Web started: History and timeline of hypertext till HTML 4.0 (1990-99). ArtefaCToS. Revista De Estudios Sobre La Ciencia Y La tecnología, 5(1), 57–82. Retrieved from


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Author Biography

Raúl Tabarés Gutiérrez

Universidad de Salamanca
Fundación Tecnalia Research & Innovation. Universidad de Salamanca. Mikeletegi Pasealekua , 2, Parque Científico y Tecnológico de Gipuzkoa. 20009 San Sebastian (España)