The awareness of Privacy issues in Ambient Intelligence

Mar LÓPEZ, Juanita PEDRAZA, Javier CARBÓ, José M. MOLINA


Ambient Intelligence (AmI) involves extensive and invisible integration of computer technologies in people´s daily lives: Smart Sensors, Smart Phones, Tablets, Wireless Sensor Network (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, NFC, RFID, etc.), Internet (Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, You Tube, Blogs, Cloud Computing, etc.). The Intelligent Environments (IE) collect and process a massive amount of person-related and sensitive information.
The aim of this work is to show the awareness of privacy issues in AmI and to identify the relevant design issues that should be addressed in order to provide privacy in the design of Ambient Intelligence’s applications focused in the user´s domain and involved technologies. We propose a conceptual framework in order to enforce privacy that takes care of interaction between technologies and devices, users and application´s domain with different modules that contain different steps relating to the privacy policies.


Ambient Intelligence; Intelligent Environment; Privacy Issues; Privacy Policies; User’s domain Design by Privacy; Privacy Management System; Privacy Enforcement Controller

Full Text:



AARTS, E. (2003).The new everyday: Views of Ambient Intelligence. 010 Publishiers (2003), Rotterdam.

AARTS, E. (2004). Ambient intelligence: a multimedia perspective. IEEE Intelligent Systems. 19, 1, 12–19.

ADAMS, A. (2001). Privacy in multimedia communications: protection users, not just data. 2001 Presented at: Joint Proceedings of Human-Computer Interaction/Interaction d’Homme-Machine (IMH-HCI 01); 2001; Lille, France p. 49-64.

AGRAWAL, D. (2001). «On the design and quantification of privacy preserving data mining algorithms». In, Symposium on Principles of Database Systems (PODS´01), pp. 247-255, Santa Barbara, May.

ALTMAN, I. (1975). The Environment and Social Behavior: Privacy, Personal Space, Territory, and Crowding. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, CA.

BELT, S. (2006-Espoo, Finland), User Perceptions on Mobile Interaction with Visual and RFID Tags. Proc. of the Workshop on Mobile Interaction with the Real World, pp. 23-26.

BOHN, J. (2004). Living in a world of smart everyday objects-Social, economic, and ethical implications. Human Ecol. Risk Assess., 10, 5.

BOJEN NIELSEN, L. MA. (2004-Delft, The Netherlands) ICEC’04 Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Electronic Commerce. Post Disney experience paradigm? Some implications for the development of content to mobile tourist services.

BORREJO-JARABA, F. (2010-Córdoba, Spain). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Industrial Engineering and other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems. Volume Part III, pp. 229-238 IEA/AIE´10. NFC Solution for the Development of Smart Scenarios Supporting Tourism Applications and Surfing in Urban Environments.

BRYCE, C. (2007). Ubiquitous privacy protection. 2007 Presented at: First IEEE International Workshop on Privacy in Ubiquitous Systems; August 2007; Salzburg, Austria.

CLARKE, R. (1997). Introduction to Dataveillance and Information Privacy, and Definitions of Terms.

CORCHADO, J.M. (2008). GerAmi: improving healthcare delivery in geriatric residences. J. IEEE Intelligent. Systems. (Special Issue on Ambient Intelligence), 3, 2, 19-25.

COSTABILE, MARIA F. (2008). Proceedings-Learning Support. 26th annual SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing. Explore! Possibilities and Challenges of Mobile Learning.

DE HERT, P. (2008). Pers Ubiquit Comput (2009) 13:435-444. Legal safeguards for privacy and data protection in ambient intelligence. Springer-Verlag London Limited.

DE VRIES, P. (2008). The state of RFID for e®ective baggage tracking in the airline industry. International Journal of Mobile Communications 2008. 6(2):151{164.

DIAZ, C. (2003). Towards measuring anonymity. In: Privacy Enhancing Technologies: Second International Workshop, PET 2002, San Francisco, CA, USA, April 14-15, 2002: revised papers. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2003:54-68.

DOYLE, J. (2010-Dundee, UK). BCS´10 Proceedings of the 24th BCS Interaction Specialist Group Conference. Designing a touch screen communication device to support social interaction amongst older adults.

FRIEDEWALD, M. (2005). Perspectives of ambient intelligence in the home environment. Telematics Informatics, 22, Elsevier, 221–238.

FRIEDEWALD, M. (2007). Privacy, identity and security in ambient intelligence: a scenario analysis. Telematics Informatics 2007 Feb;24(1):15-29.

GAGGIOLI, A. (2005). Optimal experience in ambient intelligence. In Ambient Intelligence, G. Riva, F. Vatalaro, F. Davide, and M. Alcaniz, Eds., IOS Press, Amsterdam, 35–43.

HESSELMAN, C. (2008). Controlled Disclosure of Context Information across Ubiquitous Computing Domains. In Intl. Conf. Sensor Networks, Ubiq., and Trustworthy Comp. (SUTC´08). IEEE.

HOLZINGER, A. (2005). Lifelong-learning support by mlearning: Example scenarios. eLearn, 11, 2.

HONG, J.I. (2004a). An architecture for privacy-sensitive ubiquitous computing. In MobySys´0. ACM, 2004.

HONG, J.I. (2004b ). Privacy Risk Models for Designing Privacy-Sensitive Ubiquitous Computing Systems. DIS ’04 Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Designing Interactive Systems. 91-100. 2004.

ISTAG (2002). Strategic orientation & priorities for IST in FP6. European Commission Report,

ISTAG (2003). Ambient intelligence: from vision to reality. European Commission Report,, 2010.

ISTAG (2010). Scenarios for ambient intelligence in 2010. European Commission Report,, 2010.

JIANG, X. (2002). Modeling privacy control in context-aware systems. IEEE Pervasive Computing: 2002 Jul.,1(3):59-63.

JUNG, D. (2005). A mobile alerting system for the support of patients with chronic conditions. In First European Conference on Mobile Government (EURO mGOV), Brighton, UK, pages 264-274.

KANSTRUP, A.M. (2008-Bloomington,USA) PDC’08 Proceedings of the 10th Anniversary Conference on Participatory Design. Design for More: an Ambient Perspective on Diabetes.

KAPADIA, A. (2007). Virtual walls: protecting digital privacy in pervasive environments. In LaMarca A, Langheinrich M, Truong KN, editors. Pervasive Computing: 5th International Conference, PERVASIVE 2007, Toronto, Canada, May 13-16, 2007, Proceedings (Lecture Notes in Computer Science/Information… Applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI): Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, pp. 162-179.

KRUMM, J. A. (2009). Survey of computational location privacy. Pers. and Ubiquitous Comp., 13 (6).

LANGHEINRICH, M. (2002). A privacy awareness system for ubiquitous computing environments. In UbiComp´02. Springer, 2002.

LEDERER, S. (2002). Report No, UCB/CSD-2-1288. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California; 2002 Jun. A conceptual model and metaphor of everyday privacy in ubiquitous computing environments.

LEDERER, S. (2003). Report No UCB/CSD-3-1257. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California; 2003 Jul. Managing personal information disclosure in ubiquitous computing environments.

REITER, M. (1999). «Crowds: Anonymity for web transactions». In, Communications of the ACM, vol. 42, no 3, pp. 32-48.

ROUVROY, A. (2008). Privacy, data protection, and the unprecedented challenges of ambient intelligence. Studies Ethics, Law, Technol. 2, 1, Article 3.

RUOTSALAINEN, PS. (2012). A conceptual framework and principles for trusted pervasive health. J. Med Internet Res 2012 Apr;14(2):e52. [doi: 10.2196/jmir.1972].

SADRI, F. (2011). Ambient Intelligence: A Survey. ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 43, Issue 4, Article 36.

SERJANTOVE, A. (2002). «Towards an information theoretic metric for anonymity» In, Proceedings of Workshop on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PET´02), LNCS 2482, Springer-Verlag.

SHEIKH, K. (2008). Quality-of-Context and its use for Protecting Privacy in Context Aware Systems. Journal of Software, 3(3):83-93, 2008.

SILVA, J.M. (2009-Beijing, China). Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGMM International Workshop on Media Studies and Implementations that help improving access to disabled users: UbiMeds: A mobile application to improve accessibility and support medication adherence.

SWEENEY, L. (2011). Computational disclosure control: A primer on data Privacy protection, Ph. D Thesis, MIT.

WEISER, M. (1991). The computer for the twenty-first century. Scientific Am 265(3):91–104.

WESTIN, A.F. (2003). Social and political dimensions of privacy. J Social Issues 2003 Jun; 59(2):431-453.

WRIGHT, D. (2008) Safeguards in a world of ambient intelligence, Springer Press, Dordrecht, p 291.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Clarivate Analytics