Influencia del clima motivacional en clase sobre el compromiso escolar de los adolescentes y su logro académico

Melchor GUTIÉRREZ, José Manuel TOMÁS, José Marcos BARRICA, Isabel ROMERO

Resumen


La literatura científica ofrece evidencia empírica de la relación entre el compromiso escolar y numerosas variables del contexto educativo de los adolescentes. El compromiso se ha relacionado, entre otros importantes constructos, con el burnout, tanto de los alumnos como de los profesores; el rendimiento escolar; la satisfacción con la escuela; los problemas de disciplina; las orientaciones de meta de los alumnos, y el clima motivacional de la clase. Por ello, el objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido analizar las relaciones entre el clima motivacional percibido en clase y el logro académico, mediado por el compromiso escolar de los alumnos. Han participado 2028 adolescentes que completaron diversos instrumentos para medir la percepción del clima motivacional de la clase, la satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas básicas, el apoyo a la autonomía del alumno por el profesor y el logro académico. Los datos se analizaron mediante modelos de ecuaciones estructurales con variables observables (path analysis). Los resultados mostraron una relación significativa entre el clima motivacional y el compromiso escolar, y de éste con el logro académico. Cabe destacar, además, la relación directa de la percepción de competencia y el apoyo a la autonomía con el éxito académico de los estudiantes. De las tres variables a predecir (Portugués, Matemáticas y Éxito académico), la mejor predicha por el clima de clase ha sido la percepción de éxito académico de los alumnos. Se discuten los resultados en el marco de la teoría de las metas de logro, de la motivación autodeterminada, y de cara a su aplicación práctica en el proceso de 
enseñanza-aprendizaje de los adolescentes.

 

Palabras clave


procesos educativos; compromiso del alumno; ambiente de clase; motivación del alumno; apoyo a la autonomía; logro académico

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261-271. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.84.3.261

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. NewYork: Freeman.

Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6. Structural Equations Program Manual. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software, Inc.

Cerasoli, C. P., Nicklin, J. M. y Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: A 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140 (4), 980-1008. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035661

Christenson, S. L., Reschly, A. L. y Wylie, C. (2012). Preface. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7

Cox, A. y Williams, L. (2008). The roles of perceived teacher support, motivational climate, and psychological needs satisfaction in students' physical education motivation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 30, 222-239. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.30.2.222

Damian, L. E., Stoeber, J., Negru, O. y Baban, A. (2016). On the development of perfectionism: the longitudinal role of academic achievement and academic efficacy. Journal of Personality, doi:10.1111/jopy.12261https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12261

Deci, E. L., Koestner, R. y Ryan, R. M. (2001). Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation in education: Reconsidered once again. Review of Educational Research, 71 (1), 1-27. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543071001001

Deci, E. L. y Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7

Deci, E. L. y Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-determination theory: A machrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology, 49 (3), 182-185. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012801

Eurostat. (2013). Eurostat regional yearbook 2013. Statistical Book. European Commission. Luxembourg: Publications Office EU.

Finney, S. J. y DiStefano, C. (2006). Non-normal and categorical data in SEM. En G.R. Hancock y R.O. Mueller (Eds.), Structural equation modelling: A second course (pp. 269-314). Greenwich, CO: Information Age Publishing.

Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C. y Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74, 59-90. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543074001059

Froiland, J. M. y Oros, E. (2014). Intrinsic motivation, perceived competence and classroom engagement as longitudinal predictors of adolescent reading achievement. Educational Psychology, 34, 119-132. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2013.822964

Froiland, J. M. y Worrell, F. C. (2016). Intrinsic motivation, learning goals, engagement, and achievement in a diverse high school. Psychology in the Schools, 53 (3), 321-336. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.21901

Gordon, M. S. (2016). Community disadvantage and adolescent's academic achievement: the mediating role of father influence. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25 (7), 2069-2078. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0380-2

Green, J., Liem, G. A., Martin, A. J., Colmar, S., Marsh, H.W. y McInerney, D. (2012). Academic motivation, self-concept, engagement, and performance in high school: Key processes from a longitudinal perspective. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 1111-1122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.02.016

Greene, B. A., Miller, R. B., Crowson, H. M., Duke, B. L. y Akey, K. L. (2004). Predicting high school students' cognitive engagement and achievement: Contributions of classroom perceptions and motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 462-482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2004.01.006

Hu, L. y Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

Jang, H., Kim, E. U. y Reeve, J. (2012). Longitudinal test of Self-Determination Theory's motivation mediation model in a naturally occurring classroom context. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104 (4), 1175-1188. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028089

Jelas, Z. M., Azman, N., Zulnaidi, H. y Ahmad, N. A. (2016). Learning support and academic achievement among Malaysian adolescents: the mediating role of student engagement. Learning Environments Research, 19 (2), 221-240. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10984-015-9202-5

Jeynes, W. H. (2007). The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school student academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Urban Education, 42 (1), 82-110. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085906293818

Kaplan, D. (2000). Structural equation modeling: Foundations and extensions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Lau, S. y Roeser, R. W. (2002). Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students' situational engagement and achievement in science. Educational Assessment, 8 (2), 139-162. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326977EA0802_04

Lee, C. S., Hayes, K. N., Seitz, J., DiStefano, R. y O'Connor, D. (2016). Understanding motivational structures that differentially predict engagement and achievement in middle school science. International Journal of Science Education, 38 (2), 192-215. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2015.1136452

Linnenbrink, E. A. y Pintrich, P. R. (2002). Achievement goal theory and affect: An asymmetrical bi-directional model. Educational Psychologist, 37, 69-78. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3702_2

Martin, A. J., Collie, R. J., Mok, M. M. C. y McInermey, D. M. (2016). Personal best (PB) goal structure, individual PB goals, engagement, and achievement: A study of Chinese- and English-speaking background students in Australian schools. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 86 (1), 75-91. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12092

Mega, C., Ronconi, L. y De Beni, R. (2014). What makes a good student? How emotions, self-regulated learning, and motivation contribute to academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106 (1), 121-131. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033546

Nicholls, J. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Niemiec, C. P. y Ryan, R. M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 133-144. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477878509104318

Noble, J. P. y Sawyer, R. L. (2004). Is high school GPA better than admission test scores for predicting academic success in college? College and University, 79 (4), 17-22.

Pintrich, P. R. (2004). A conceptual framework for assessing student motivation and self-regulated learning in college students. Educational Psychology Review, 16, 385-407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-004-0006-x

Plunkett, S. W., Henry, C. S., Houltberg, B. J., Sands, T. y Abarca-Mortensen, S. (2008). Academic support by significant others and educational resilience in Mexican-origin ninth grade students from intact families. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 28 (3), 333-355. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431608314660

Raufelder, D., Kittler, F., Braun, S. R., Lätsch, A., Wilkiinson, R. P. y Hoferichter, F. (2014). The interplay of perceived stress, self-determination and school engagement in adolescence. School Psychology International, 35 (4), 405-420. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034313498953

Raufelder, D., Regner, N., Drury, K. y Eid, M. (2016). Does self-determination predict the school engagement of four different motivation types in adolescence? Educational Psychology, 36 (7), 1242-1263. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2015.1008405

Reeve, J. (2009). Why teachers adopt a controlling motivating style toward students and how they can become more autonomy supportive. Educational Psychologist, 44, 159-175. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520903028990

Reeve, J. (2012). A self-determination theory perspective on student engagement. En S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly y C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7_7

Reeve, J. y Tseng, C. (2011). Personal agency as a fourth aspect of students' engagement during learning activities. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 257-267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2011.05.002

Reeve, J., Jang, H., Carrell, D., Jeon, S. y Barch, J. (2004). Enhancing students' engagement by increasing teachers' autonomy support. Motivation and Emotion, 28, 147-169. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:MOEM.0000032312.95499.6f

Reynolds, D., Sammons, P., De Fraine, B., Damme, J. V., Townsend, T., Teddlie, C. y Stringfield, S. (2014). Educational effectiveness research (EER): A state-of-the-art review. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 25, 197-230. https://doi.org/10.1080/09243453.2014.885450

Ryan, R. M. y Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68

Ryan, R. M. y Deci, E. L. (2009). Promoting self-determined school engagement: Motivation, learning, and well-being. En K. R. Wentzel y A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 171-196). New York: Routledge.

Senko, C., Hulleman, C. S. y Harackiewicz, J. M. (2011). Achievement goal theory at the crossroads: Old controversies, current challenges, and new directions. Educational Psychologist, 46, 26-47. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2011.538646

Sheldon, K. M. y Hilper, J. C. (2012). The Balanced Measure of Psychological Needs (BMPN) scale: An alternative domain general measure of need satisfaction. Motivation and Emotion, 36, 439-451. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-012-9279-4

Skinner, E. A., Furrer, C., Marchand, G. y Kindermann, T. (2008). Engagement and disaffection in the classroom: Part of a larger motivational dynamic? Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 765-781. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012840

Skinner, E. A., Kindermann, T. A. y Furrer, C. (2009). A motivational perspective on engagement and disaffection: Conceptualization and assessment of children's behavioral and emotional participation in academic activities in the classroom. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69, 493-525. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164408323233

Stornes, E. B. y Bru, E. (2011). Perceived motivational climates and self-reported emotional and behavioural problems among Norwegian secondary school students. School Psychology International, 32, 425-438. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034310397280

Tomás, J. M., Gutiérrez, M., Sancho, P., Chireac, S. M. y Romero, I. (2016). El compromiso escolar (school engagement) de los adolescentes: Medida de sus dimensiones. Ense-anza & Teaching, 34 (1), 119-135. https://doi.org/10.14201/et2016341119135

Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M. y Deci, E. L. (2004). Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: The synergistic role of intrinsic goals and autonomy support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 246 -260. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.87.2.246

Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Soenens, B. y Matos, L. (2005). Examining the impact of extrinsic versus intrinsic goal framing and internally controlling versus autonomy-supportive communication style upon early adolescents' academic achievement. Child Development, 76, 483-501. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00858.x

Veiga, F. H. (2013). Envolvimento dos alunos na escola: Elaboração de uma nova escala de avaliação. International Journal of Developmental and Educational Psychology, 1 (1) 441-450.

Wang, M. T. y Holcombe, R. (2010). Adolescents' perceptions of school environment, engagement, and academic achievement in middle school. American Educational Research Journal, 47 (3), 633-662. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831209361209

Winne, P. H. y Nesbit, J. C. (2010). The psychology of academic achievement. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 653-678. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100348

Xia, M., Fosco, G. M. y Feinberg, M. E. (2016). Examining reciprocal influences among family climate, school attachment, and academic self-regulation: implications for school success. Journal of Family Psychology, 30 (4), 442-452. https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000141




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14201/et20173512137





Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Alteridad