Contenido principal del artículo

Stephen Rippon
University of Exeter
Reino Unido
Vol. 37 Núm. 1 (2019), Artículos, Páginas 7-27


El final del dominio romano en Gran Bretaña tuvo un profundo efecto en la sociedad y tradicionalmente se ha visto como un momento de grandes cambios en la economía y en los modelos de producción agraria, incluyendo el abandono de vastas áreas del territorio y el declive de la población. Se pensaba que los paisajes típicamente medievales eran posteriores, cuando en una amplia franja del centro de Inglaterra se crearon extensos sistemas de «open field» en los siglos VIII al XII. La reciente evidencia arqueológica y paleoambiental –en buena medida procedente de la arqueología empresarial– ha transformado completamente nuestra comprensión sobre los cambios en el paisaje durante este periodo, y muchas regiones muestran un mayor grado de continuidad de lo que hasta ahora se había pensado. Los «open fields» parece que no se crearon tanto como consecuencia de una «gran replanificación» del paisaje, que habría barrido los terrazgos previos, sino que en algunos casos parecen haber evolucionado a partir de los límites de terrazgos preexistentes que habrían sobrevivido del periodo romano.


La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Detalles del artículo


Abrams, Joe and Ingham, David. Farming on the Edge: Archaeological Evidence from the Clay Uplands to the West of Cambridge. Bedford: Albion Archaeology, 2008. East Anglian Archaeology 123.

Andrews, Phil; Biddulph, Edward; Hardy, Alan and Brown, Richard. Settling the Ebbsfleet Valley. High Speed I Excavations at Springhead and Northfleet, Kent. The Late Iron Age, Roman, Saxon, and Medieval Landscape. Oxford and Salisbury: Oxford Wessex Archaeology: 2011.

Biddulph, Edward and Brady, Kate. Excavations Along the M25: Prehistoric, Roman and Anglo-Saxon Activity Between Aveley and Epping, Essex. Colchester: Essex Society for Archaeology and History, 2015. Occasional Paper (New Series) 3.

Blair, John; Rippon, Stephen and Smart, Chris. Planning in the Early Medieval Landscape. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, forthcoming.

Bowden, Mark; Soutar, Sharon; Field, David and Barber, Martyn. The Stonehenge Landscape. Swindon: Historic England, 2015.

Bowman, Peter. «Villages and their territories part II: the south-east Leicestershire survey». In Bowman, Peter and Liddle, Peter (eds.). Leicestershire Landscapes. Leicester: Leicestershire Museums Archaeological Fieldwork Group, 2004, pp. 120-136.

Brett, Mark and Mudd, Andrew. «Prehistoric, Roman and post-Roman discoveries in South Somerset: the archaeology of the Ilchester to Barrington gas pipeline 2005-6». Proceedings of the Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, 2013, vol. 156, pp. 74-104.

Brown, Tony and Foard, Glenn. «The Saxon Landscape: a regional perspective». In Everson, Paul and Williamson, Tom (eds.). The Archaeology of Landscape. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998, pp. 67-94.

Bryant, Stuart; Perry, Brian and Williamson, Tom. «A "relict landscape" in south-east Hertfordshire: archaeological and topographical investigations in the Wormley area». Landscape History, 2005, vol. 27, pp. 5-16 -

Buntgen, U. et al. «Cooling and societal change during the late antique Little Ice Age from 536 to around 660 AD». Nature Geoscience, 2016, vol. 9, pp. 231-236. -

Burleigh, Gilbert and Fitzpatrick-Mathews, Keith. Excavations at Baldock, Hertfordshire, 1978-1994. Volume 1: An Iron Age and Romano-British Cemetery at Wallington Road. Letchworth Garden City: North Hertfordshire District Council/North Hertfordshire Archaeological Society, 2010.

Chambers, R. A. «The late- and sub-Roman cemetery at Queenford Farm, Dorchester-on-Thames, Oxon». Oxoniensia, 1987, vol. 52, pp. 35-70.

Charman, Dan; Blundell, Antony; Chiverrell, Richard; Hendon, Dawn and Langdon, Pete. «Compilation of non-annually resolved Holocene proxy climate records: stacked Holocene peatland palaeo-water table reconstructions from northern Britain». Quaternary Science Reviews, 2006, vol. 25, pp. 336-350. -

Chester-Kadwell, Mary. Early Anglo-Saxon Communities in the Landscape of Norfolk. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 2009.

Cohen, Nathalie. «Early Anglo-Saxon fishtraps on the River Thames». In Brookes, Stuart; Harrington, Sue and Reynolds, Andrew (eds.). Studies in Early Anglo-Saxon Art and Archaeology: Papers in Honour of Martin G. Welch. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, British Series 257, 2011, pp. 231-238.

Connor, Aileen. «A Romano-Saxon farmstead and possible 12th-century dovecote or windmill: community excavations at Spring Close, Boxworth». Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 2008, vol. XCVII, pp. 111-119.

Coombes, Paul and Barber, Keith. «Environmental determinism in Holocene research: causality or coincidence». Area, 2005, vol. 37(3), pp. 303-311. -

Cowie, Robert and Blackmore, Lyn. Early and Middle Saxon Rural Settlement in the London Region. London: Museum of London Archaeological Service, 2008.

Crowson, Andy; Lane, Tom; Penn, Ken and Trimble, Dale. Anglo-Saxon Settlement on the Siltland of Eastern England. Sleaford: Lincolnshire Archaeology, 2006. Lincolnshire Archaeology and Heritage Reports Series 7.

Day, S. P. «Woodland origin and "ancient woodland indicators": a case study from Sidlings Copse, Oxfordshire, UK». Holocene, 1993, vol. 3(i), pp. 45-53. -

Deegan, Alison and Foard, Glenn. Mapping Ancient Landscapes in Northamptonshire. London: English Heritage, 2007 [].

Eddison, Jill. Romney Marsh: Survival on a Frontier. Stroud: Tempus, 2000.

Fitzpatrick-Matthews, Keith. «Defining fifth-century ceramics in North Hertfordshire». In Gerrard, James (ed.). Fifth Century Roman Pottery. Internet Archaeology, vol. 41, 2016, at: <>. -

Fleming, Fiona. A Persistence of Place: A Study of Continuity and Regionality in the Roman and Early Medieval Rural Settlement Patterns of Norfolk, Kent and Somerset. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 2016. British Series 626.

Fyfe, Ralph; Twiddle, Claire; Sugita, Shinya; Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Barratt, Philip; Caseldine, Christopher; Dodson, John; Edwards, Kevin; Farrell, Michelle; Froyd, Cynthia; Grant, Michael; Huckerby, Elizabeth; Innes, James; Shaw, Helen and Waller, Martyn. «The Holocene vegetation cover of Britain and Ireland: overcoming problems of scale and discerning patterns of openness». Quaternary Science Reviews, 2013, vol. 73, pp. 132-148. -

Garton, Daryl. «The Romano-British landscape of the Sherwood Sandstone of Nottinghamshire: fieldwalking the brickwork-plan field-systems». Transactions of the Thoroton Society of Nottinghamshire, 2008, vol. 112, pp. 15-110.

Hall, David. The Fenland Project, Number 10: Cambridgeshire Survey, the Isle of Ely and Wisbech. Cambridge: Cambridgeshire County Council, 1996. East Anglian Archaeology 79.

Hall, David. The Open Fields of England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. -

Hamerow, Helena. Excavations at Mucking Volume 2: The Anglo-Saxon Settlement. London: English Heritage, 1993.

Hamerow, Helena. Rural Settlements and Society in Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. -

Hanson, Inge Lyse and Wickham, Chris (eds.). The Long Eighth Century: Production, Distribution and Demand. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Hardy, Alan; Charles, Bethan and Williams, Robert. Death and Taxes: The Archaeology of a Middle Saxon Estate Centre at Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire. Oxford: Oxford Archaeology, 2007.

Harmer, Ralph; Peterken, George; Kerr, Gary and Paulton, Paul. «Vegetation change during 100 years of development of two secondary woodlands in abandoned arable lands». Biological Conservation, 2001, vol. 101, pp. 291-304. -

Havis, Richard and Brooks, Howard. Excavations at Stansted Airport 1986-91, Volume 2. Chelmsford: Essex County Council. East Anglian Archaeology 107.

Heaton, Michael. «Two mid-Saxon grain driers and later medieval features at Chantry Fields, Gillingham, Dorset». Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 1992, vol. 114, pp. 97-126.

Heppell, Ellen. «Saxon fishtraps in the Blackwater Estuary, Essex: monitoring survey at Collin's Creek, Pewet Island and The Nass 2003-2007». Transactions of the Essex Society for Archaeology and History, 2011, vol. 2, pp. 76-97.

Howell, Isca; Swift, Dan and Watson, Bruce. Archaeological Landscapes of East London: Six Multi-period Sites Excavated in Advance of Gravel Quarrying in the London Borough of Havering. London: Museum of London Archaeology, 2011 [for digital archive:].

Jones, Michael. The End of Roman Britain. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996.

Klimenko, Vladimir. «Thousand-year history of northeastern Europe exploration in the context of climatic change: medieval to early modern times». The Holocene, 26(iii), 2016, pp.365-379. -

Lamb, Hubert. Climate, History and the Modern World. London: Routledge, 1982.

Lewis, Carenza; Mitchell-Fox, Patrick and Dyer, Christopher. Village, Hamlet and Field. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997.

Lowerre, Andrew. Rural Settlement in England: Analysing Environmental Factors and Regional Variation in Historic Rural Settlement Organisation Using Regression and Clustering Techniques. London: English Heritage, 2014. Research Report Series 72.

Luterbacher, J. et al. «European summer temperatures since Roman times». Environmental Research Letters, 2016, vol. 11(2), pp. 1-12.

Mattingly, David. An Imperial Possession: Britain in the Roman Empire. London: Penguin Books, 2006.

McDermott, Frank; Mattey, David and Hawkesworth, Chris. «Centennial-scale Holocene climate variability revealed by a high-resolution speleothem 18O record from SW Ireland». Science, 2001, vol. 294, pp. 1328-1331. -

McOmish, David; Field, David and Brown, Graham. The Field Archaeology of the Salisbury Plain Training Area. London: English Heritage, 2002.

Middleton, Guy. «Nothing lasts forever: environmental discourse on the collapse of past societies». Journal of Archaeological Research, 2012, vol. 20, pp. 257-307. -

Minter, Faye and Plouviez, Jude. «Archaeology in Suffolk 2014». Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute for Archaeology and History, 2015, vol. 43(3), pp. 448-449.

Murphy, Peter. «The landscape and economy of the Anglo-Saxon coast: new archaeological evidence». In Higham, Nicholas and Ryan, Martin (eds.). The Landscape Archaeology of Anglo-Saxon England. Woodbridge: Boydell, 2010, pp. 211-222.

Newman, John. «The Late Roman and Anglo-Saxon settlement pattern in the Sandlings of Suffolk». In Carver, Martin (ed.). The Age of Sutton Hoo. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1992, pp. 25-51.

Palmer, Rog. «The aerial evidence». In Hall, David (ed.). The Fenland Project, Number 10: Cambridgeshire Survey, The Isle of Ely and Wisbech. Cambridge: Cambridgeshire County Council, 1996, pp. 192-198. East Anglian Archaeology 79.

Parry, Steve. Raunds Area Survey: An Archaeological Study of the Landscape of Raunds, Northamptonshire 1985-94. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2006.

Paul, Samantha; Colls, Kevin and Chapman, Henry. Living with the Flood: Mesolithic to Post-Medieval Archaeological Remains at Mill Lane, Sawston, Cambridge. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2016. -

Rahtz, Philip A. and Meeson, Robert. An Anglo-Saxon Watermill at Tamworth: Excavations in the Bolebridge Street Area of Tamworth, Staffordshire, in 1971 and 1978. London: Council for British Archaeology, 1992.

Rippon, Stephen. «The Rayleigh Hills in South East Essex: patterns in the exploitation of rural resources in a "woodland" landscape». In Green, Sarah (ed.). The Essex Landscape: in Search of its History. Chelmsford: Essex County Council, 1999, pp. 20-28.

Rippon, Stephen. The Transformation of Coastal Wetlands. London: British Academy, 2000.

Rippon, Stephen. Landscape, Community and Colonisation: The North Somerset Levels During the 1st to 2nd millennia AD. York: Council for British Archaeology, 2006. Research Report 152.

Rippon, Stephen. «Landscape change in the "Long Eighth Century"». In Higham, Nicholas and Ryan, Martin (eds). The Landscape Archaeology of Anglo-Saxon England. Woodbridge: Boydell, 2010, pp. 39-64.

Rippon, Stephen. Olympic Mountain Bike Venue, Hadleigh Farm, Essex: the evolution of the historic landscape. Unpublished report: University of Exeter, 2012 [].

Rippon, Stephen. Kingdom, Civitas and County. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Rippon, Stephen and Fyfe, Ralph. «Regional variation in the continuity of land-use patterns through the first millennium A.D. in lowland Britain». Late Antique Archaeology, 2017, vol. 13, 146-165.

Rippon, Stephen; Fyfe, Ralph and Brown, Anthony. «Beyond villages and open fields: the origins and development of a historic landscape characterised by dispersed settlement in South West England». Medieval Archaeology, 2006, vol. 50, pp. 31-70. -

Rippon, Stephen; Smart, Chris and Pears, Ben. The Fields of Britannia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Rippon, Stephen; Wainwright, Adam and Smart, Chris. «Farming regions in medieval England: the archaeobotanical and zooarchaeological evidence». Medieval Archaeology, 2014, vol. 58, pp. 195-255. -

Roberts, Brian and Wrathmell, Stuart. An Atlas of Rural Settlement in England. London: English Heritage, 2000.

Robertson, David and Ames, John. «Early medieval inter-tidal fishweirs at Holme Beach, Norfolk». Medieval Archaeology, 2010, vol. 54, pp. 329-346.

Rowley, Trevor (ed.). The Origins of Open Field Agriculture. London: Croom Helm, 1981.

Seager Smith, Rachael. «Saxon and medieval pottery». In Fulford, Michael; Entwistle, Roy and Raymond, Frances. Iron Age and Romano-British Settlements and Landscapes on Salisbury Plain. Salisbury: Wessex Archaeology, 2006.

Shoesmith, Ron. Hereford City Excavations Volume 2: Excavations on and Close to the Defences. London: Council for British Archaeology, 1982. Research Report 46.

Simmonds, Andrew; Anderson-Whymark, Hugo and Norton, Andrew. «Excavations at Tubney Wood Quarry, Oxfordshire». Oxoniensia, 2011, vol. 76, pp. 105-172.

Smith, Alex et al. The Rural Settlement of Roman Britain: an online resource. <>.

Smith, Alex; Allen, Martyn; Brindle, Tom and Fulford, Michael. The Rural Settlement of Roman Britain. New Visions of the Countryside of Roman Britain Volume 1. London: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, 2016. Britannia Monograph 29.

Sugita, Shinya. «Theory of quantitative reconstruction of vegetation I: pollen from large lakes reveals regional vegetation composition». The Holocene, 2007, vol. 17, pp. 229-241. -

Thirsk, Joan. «The common fields». Past & Present, 1964, vol. 29, pp. 3-29. -

Thirsk, Joan. «The origins of the common fields». Past & Present, 1966, vol. 33, pp. 142-147. -

Turney, Chris; Baillie, Mike; Palmer, Jonathan and Brown, David. «Holocene climatic change and past Irish societal response». Journal of Archaeological Science, 2006, vol. 33(1), pp. 34-38. -

Turney, Chris; Jones, Richard; Thomas, Zoe; Palmer, Jonathan and Brown, David. «Extreme wet conditions coincident with Bronze Age abandonment of upland areas in Britain». Anthropocene, 2016, vol. 13, pp. 69-79. -

Van Geel, B.; Bokovenko, N. A.; Burova, N. D.; Chugunov, K. V.; Dergachev, V. A.; Dirksen, V. G.; Kulkova, M.; Nagler, A.; Parzinger, H.; van der Plicht, J.; Vasiliev, S. S. and Zaitseva, G. I. «Climate change and the expansion of the Scythian culture after 850 BC, a hypothesis». Journal of Archaeological Science, 2004, vol. 31(12), pp. 1735-1742. -

Vince, Alan. Characterisation Studies of Anglo-Saxon and Medieval Pottery from Upminster. Unpublished report: Alan Vince Archaeological Consultancy, 2006 at: .

Vinther, B. M.; Buchardt, S. L., Clausen, H. B.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Johnsen, S. J.; Fisher, D. A.; Koerner, R. M.; Raynaud, D.; Lipenkov, V.; Andersen, K. K.; Blunier, T.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Steffensen, J. P. and Svensson, A. M. «Holocene thinning of the Greenland ice sheet». Nature, 2009, vol. 461, pp. 385-388. -

West, Stanley. West Stow: The Anglo Saxon Village. Ipswich: Suffolk County Council, 1985. East Anglian Archaeology 24.

Wickham, Chris. Framing the Early Middle Ages. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. -

Wilkinson, Tony and Murphy, Peter. The Archaeology of the Essex Coast, Volume 1: The Hullbridge Survey. Chelmsford: Essex County Council, 1995. East Anglian Archaeology 71.

Williamson, Tom. Shaping Medieval Landscapes. Macclesfield: Windgather Press, 2003.

Williamson, Tom; Liddiard, Robert and Partida, Tracey. Champion: The Making and Unmaking of the English Medieval Landscape. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2013.

Wrathmell, Stuart. «Woodland in Roman Britain: some hypotheses». Britannia, 2017, vol. 48, pp. 311-318. -