Models without a Target


It is frequently acknowledged that some scientific models do not have a target. In that case, it is not clear how surrogative reasoning is possible. In this article I contend that every model has a target. I argue that targets should not be identified with selected phenomena or with selected portions or aspects of the real world. I intend to show that the target of any model is always the outcome of a complex process of construction, a process that cannot be accounted for solely by means of abstraction from the phenomena. I conclude that although all models have a fixed target, their domain of application may change or even be empty.
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