El problema de la irreversibilidad: una relación interteórica de dos niveles

Olimpia LOMBARDI, Juan Camilo MARTÍNEZ GONZÁLEZ

Resumen


El objetivo del presente trabajo consiste en arrojar nueva luz sobre el problema de la irreversibilidad, señalando que en las discusiones sobre el tema no se ha tomado en cuenta suficientemente que la relación entre termodinámica y mecánica involucra relaciones teóricas en dos niveles: un nivel intra-teórico y un nivel inter-teórico. Intentaremos poner de manifiesto los dos pasos necesarios para establecer el vínculo entre irreversibilidad termodinámica y reversibilidad mecánica: el primer paso consiste en explicar la relación intra-teórica entre macro-irreversibilidad y micro-reversibilidad en el marco mecánico; el segundo paso es establecer la relación inter-teórica entre la irreversibilidad termodinámica expresada por el segundo principio y la macro-irreversibilidad obtenida en el primer paso. Finalmente, se discutirán las posibles interpretaciones de estos dos pasos desde diferentes posturas filosóficas.


Palabras clave


Emergencia; reducción; pluralismo; termodinámica; mecánica estadística; relaciones interteóricas.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Anderson, Philip (1972). More is Different. Science, 177, 393-396. - https://doi.org/10.1126/science.177.4047.393

Batterman, Robert (2002). The Devil in the Details. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bricmont, Jean (1995). Science of Chaos or Chaos in Science. Physicalia, 17, 159-208. - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1996.tb23135.x

Butterfield, Jeremy (2011a). Emergence, Reduction and Supervenience: A Varied Landscape. Foundations of Physics, 41, 920-959. - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10701-011-9549-0

Butterfield, Jeremy (2011b). Less is Emergence and Reduction Reconciled. Foundations of Physics, 41, 1065-1135. - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10701-010-9516-1

Davidson, Donald. (1970). Mental Events. En L. Foster y J. W. Swanson (Eds.), Experience and Theory (pp. 79-101). Amherst, MA: The University of Massachusetts Press.

Dizadji-Bahmani, Foad, Frigg, Roman y Hartmann, Stephan (2010). Who is afraid of Nagelian reduction? Erkenntnis, 73, 393-412. - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10670-010-9239-x

Dizadji-Bahmani, Foad, Frigg, Roman y Hartmann, Stephan (2011). Confirmation and reduction: A Bayesian account. Synthese, 179, 321-338. - https://doi.org/10.1007/s11229-010-9775-6

El-Hani, Charbel y Pihlström, Sami. (2002). Emergence theories and pragmatic realism. Essays in Philosophy, 3(2), Art. 3.

Esfeld, Michael y Sachse, Christian (2007). Theory reduction by means of functional sub-types. International Studies in the Philosophy of Sciences, 21, 1-17. - https://doi.org/10.1080/02698590701305735

Fazekas, Peter (2009). Reconsidering the role of bridge laws in inter-theoretic reductions. Erkenntnis, 71, 303-322. - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10670-009-9181-y

Fodor, Jerry (1974). Special sciences (or: The disunity of sciences as a working hypothesis). Synthese, 28, 97-115. - https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00485230

Fodor, Jerry (1975). The Language of Thought. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Frigg, Roman (2007). A field guide to recent work on the foundations of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. En D. Rickles (ed.), The Ashgate Companion to the New Philosophy of Physics (pp. 99-196). London: Ashgate.

Gibbs, Josiah Willard (1902) [1960]. Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics. New York: Dover.

Howard, Don (2007). Reduction and emergence in the physical sciences: some lessons from the particle physics and condensed matter debate. en N. Murphy y W. R. Stoeger (eds.), Evolution and Emergence: Systems, Organisms, Persons (pp. 141-157). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hull, David (1972). Reductionism in genetics: biology or philosophy? Philosophy of Science, 39, 491-499. - https://doi.org/10.1086/288470

Humphreys, Paul (1997). How properties emerge. Philosophy of Science, 64, 1-17. - https://doi.org/10.1086/392533

Humphreys, Paul (2008). Synchronic and diachronic emergence. Minds & Machines, 18, 431-442. - https://doi.org/10.1007/s11023-008-9125-3

Kim, Jaegwon (1999). Making sense of emergence. Philosophical Studies, 95, 3-36. - https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004563122154

Kim, Jaegwon (2008). Reduction and Reductive Explanation. Is One Possible Without the Other? En J. Kallestrup y J. Hohwy (Eds.), Being Reduced. New Essays on Reduction, Explanation and Causation (pp. 93-114). Oxford: Oxford University Press. - https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211531.003.0006

Kitcher, Philip (1984). 1953 and All That: A Tale of Two Sciences. Philosophical Review, 93, 335-373. - https://doi.org/10.2307/2184541

Klein, Colin (2009). Reduction Without Reductionism: A Defence of Nagel on Connectability. Philosophical Quarterly, 59, 39-53. - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9213.2008.560.x

Lebowitz, Joel (1993). Boltzmann's Time's Arrow. Physics Today, 46, 9-32. - https://doi.org/10.1063/1.881363

Lebowitz, Joel y Penrose, Oliver (1973). Modern Theory. Physics Today, 26, 23-29. - https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3127948

Lewis, David (1994). Reduction of Mind. En D. Lewis (ed.), Papers in Metaphysics and Epistemology (pp. 291-324). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lombardi, Olimpia (2003). El problema de la ergodicidad en mecánica estadística. Crítica. Revista Hispanoamericana de Filosofía, 35, 3-41.

Lombardi, Olimpia (2011). The Problem of Irreversibility, From Fourier to Chaos Theory: The tTajectory of a Controversy Space. En O. Nudler (ed.), Controversy Spaces. A model of scientific and philosophical change (pp. 77-102). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. - https://doi.org/10.1075/cvs.10.08lom

Lombardi, Olimpia (2014a). Linking Chemistry with Physics: Arguments and Counterarguments. Foundations of Chemistry, 16, 181-192. - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10698-013-9197-x

Lombardi, Olimpia (2014b). The Ontological Autonomy of the Chemical World: Facing the Criticisms. En E. Scerri y L. McIntyre (eds.), Philosophy of Chemistry: Growth of a New Discipline (Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science) (pp. 23-38). Dordrecht: Springer.

Lombardi, O. y Labarca, Martín (2005). The Ontological Autonomy of the Chemical World. Foundations of Chemistry, 7, 125-148. - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10698-004-0980-6

Lombardi, Olimpia y Labarca, Martín (2006). The ontological autonomy of the chemical world: A response to Needha. Foundations of Chemistry, 8, 81-92. - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10698-005-9004-4

Lombardi, Olimpia y Labarca, Martín (2011). On the autonomous existence of chemical entities. Current Physical Chemistry, 1, 69-75. - https://doi.org/10.2174/1877946811101010069

Lombardi, Olimpia y Pérez Ransanz, Ana Rosa (2012). Los Múltiples Mundos de la Ciencia. Un Realismo Pluralista y su Aplicación a la Filosofía de la Física. México: UNAM-Siglo XXI.

McLaughlin, Brian (1997). Emergence and supervenience. Intellectica, 2, 25-43.

Nagel, Ernst (1949). The meaning of reduction in the natural sciences. En R. C. Stauffer (Ed.), Science and Civilization (pp. 99-135). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Nagel, Ernst (1961). The Structure of Science: Problems in the Logic of Scientific Explanation. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Needham, Paul (2010). Nagel's analysis of reduction: Comments in defense as well as critique. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 41, 163-170. - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shpsb.2009.06.006

Neurath, Otto (1935) [1983]. The unity of science as a task. En M. Neurath y R. S. Cohen (eds.), Otto Neurath. Philosophical Papers 1913-1946 (pp. 115-120). Dordrecht: Reidel.

Nickles, Thomas (1973). Two concepts of intertheoretic reduction. Journal of Philosophy, 70, 181-201. - https://doi.org/10.2307/2024906

O'Connor, Timothy. y Wong, Hong Yu (2015). Emergent Properties. En E. N. Zalta (Ed.),

Prigogine, Ilya y Stengers, Isabelle (1984). Order Out of Chaos. New York: Bantam Books.

Primas, Hans (1981). Chemistry, Quantum Mechanics and Reductionism. Berlin: Springer. - https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-11314-1

Primas, Hans (1998). Emergence in Exact Natural Sciences. Acta Polytechnica Scandinavica, 91, 83-98.

Putnam, Hilary (1975). Philosophy and Our Mental Life. Mind, Language, and Reality: Philosophical Papers (pp. 291-303). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. - https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625251.016

Putnam, Hilary (1981). Reason, Truth and History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. - https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625398

Putnam, Hilary (1990). Realism with a Human Face. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.

Rohrlich, Fritz (1988). Pluralistic Ontology and Theory Reduction in the Physical Sciences. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 39, 295-312. - https://doi.org/10.1093/bjps/39.3.295

Rueger, Alexander (2000). Physical Emergence, Diachronic and Synchronic. Synthese, 124, 297-322. - https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005249907425

Schaffner, Kenneth (1993). Discovery and Explanation in Biology and Medicine. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Schaffner, Kenneth (2013). Ernest Nagel and reduction. Journal of Philosophy, 109, 534-565. - https://doi.org/10.5840/jphil20121098/926

Scerri, Eric y McIntyre, Lee (1997). The Case for the Philosophy of Chemistry. Synthese, 111, 213-232. - https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004949814965

Silberstein, Michael y McGeever, John (1999). The search for ontological emergence. Philosophical Quarterly, 49,182-200. - https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9213.00136

Sklar, Lawrence (1967). Types of Inter-Theoretic Reduction. British Journal for Philosophy of Science, 5, 464-482. - https://doi.org/10.1093/bjps/18.2.109

Sklar, Lawrence (1993). Physics and Chance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. - https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511624933

Tolman, Richard (1938). The Principles of Statistical Mechanics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Torretti, Roberto (2000). Scientific Realism and Scientific Practice. En E. Agazzi y M. Pauri (eds.), The Reality of the Unobservable: Observability, Unobservability and their Impact on the Issue of Scientific Realism (pp. 113-122). Dordrecht: Kluwer. - https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-9391-5_6

Torretti, Roberto (2008). Objectivity: A Kantian Perspective. En M. Massimi (ed.), Kant and Philosophy of Science Today (pp. 81-95). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. - https://doi.org/10.1017/S1358246108000052

Uffink, Jos (2007). Compendium of the Foundations of Classical Statistical Physics. En J. Butterfield y J. Earman (eds.), Philosophy of Physics (pp. 923-1074). Amsterdam: Elsevier. - https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-044451560-5/50012-9

van Riel, Raphael (2011). Nagelian reduction beyond the Nagel model. Philosophy of Science, 78, 353-375. - https://doi.org/10.1086/660300

Wimsatt, William (1976). Reductive Explanation: A Functional Account. En R. S. Cohen, C. A. Hooker y A. C. Michalos (Eds.), PSA 1974: Proceedings of the 1974 Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association (pp. 671-710). Dordrecht: Reidel. - https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-1449-6_38




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14201/artefactos2018712950





Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.