Contenido principal del artículo

Lucía Rodrigo-Gómez
Universidad de Salamanca
España
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8527-9252
José Luis Pardal-Refoyo
Universidad de Salamanca
España
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7462-1606
Ángel Batuecas-Caletrío
Universidad de Salamanca
España
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2613-670X
Vol. 12 Núm. 1 (2021), Artículo de revisión, Páginas 67-83
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14201/orl.23207
Aceptado: jul 5, 2020
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Resumen

Introducción y objetivo: Los tumores metastásicos en la glándula tiroides complican el diagnóstico, el tratamiento y el pronóstico del paciente. El objetivo es conocer la prevalencia de las metástasis en la glándula tiroides referida en la literatura médica y los tumores primarios que con más frecuencia metastatizan en la glándula tiroides. Método: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sistemática en las bases de datos de PubMed, La Biblioteca Cochrane y Scopus. Los artículos seleccionados se dividieron en dos grupos, series clínicas de pacientes en los que se hallaron metástasis en tiroides (grupo A) y series de hallazgos de metástasis en tiroides en autopsias (grupo B). Se realizó metanálisis de prevalencia para cada grupo de artículos siguiendo el modelo de efectos aleatorios. Resultados: La prevalencia en cada grupo con su índice de confianza al 95% fue 0.00479 (0.002-0.007) para el grupo A y 0.0362 (0.014-0.059) para el grupo B. La prevalencia de metástasis halladas en autopsias fue 7,58 veces mayor que en los estudios clínicos. En el grupo A la edad media fue 60.82 y en el grupo B 57.20. En ambos grupos las metástasis halladas en tiroides fueron más frecuentes en el sexo femenino. La localización del tumor primario fue diferente en ambos grupos, en el grupo A fue el cáncer de riñón y en el grupo B el cáncer de mama. La variabilidad de la prevalencia de metástasis en tiroides en los diferentes artículos de ambos grupos hace que este estudio tuviese una alta heterogeneidad (índice I2 y Q). Los funnel plot de ambos grupos indicaron alto sesgo de publicación. Discusión: La diferente prevalencia entre series clínicas y autopsias puede implicar que la detección de metástasis en tiroides en la clínica está infradiagnosticada. La razón de esto podría ser que las metástasis intratiroideas se presentan de forma asintomática siendo diagnosticadas como hallazgo casual en autopsias. En otras ocasiones se presentan como un nódulo tiroideo años después del tumor primario, lo que condiciona el diagnóstico. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de metástasis en tiroides es superior en las series de autopsias que en series clínicas (hasta 6.67 veces más frecuente en nuestro estudio). Las metástasis intratiroideas probablemente están infradiagnosticadas por cursar sin clínica siendo diagnosticadas como hallazgo casual en autopsias. Los tumores primarios más frecuentes fueron el riñón (series clínicas) y la mama (series de autopsias).

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