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Jaime Caiceo Escudero
Universidad de Santiago de Chile
Chile
Vol. 9 (2018), Estudios, Páginas 393-418
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14516/fdp.2018.009.001.014
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Resumen

Se persigue demostrar que las ciencias sociales no han tenido el desarrollo suficiente porque Comte legitimó solo la metodología de las ciencias naturales, como la única válida para elaborar las ciencias sociales. Por su parte, Dilthey hace la crítica pertinente indicando que las ciencias sociales buscan comprender los hechos, más que explicarlos como lo hacen las ciencias naturales; por lo mismo, deben moverse más bien en un paradigma cualitativo y no cuantitativo; por ello, propone buscar una epistemología propia para las ciencias sociales, pues el objeto de estudio son los hombres y sus relaciones, que no tienen un comportamiento uniforme, como el mundo natural. Las ciencias naturales buscan el porqué de los fenómenos; las sociales, la comprensión de los mismos.Durante el siglo XX hubo intentos por varios filósofos por encontrar una episteme propia de las ciencias sociales para un desarrollo más rápido de las mismas, sin lograrlo plenamente. De ahí la crisis de la epistemología de las ciencias sociales, las cuales no han tenido aún una expansión adecuada.Entre los diversos intentos epistemológicos para desarrollar las ciencias sociales se encuentran la fenomenología de Husserl, la hermenéutica de Gadamer, la filosofía crítica de Habermas, la filosofía del lenguaje de Wittgenstein y el racionalismo crítico o método hipotético-deductivo de Popper y de quienes se apartan de él, Khun y Lakatos.Sin embargo, a partir de los planteamientos de los filósofos mencionados, se ha producido un avance importante en el desarrollo de las ciencias sociales, pues se han realizado estudios con énfasis cualitativo, pero con aportes cuantitativos; las ciencias naturales también han realizado algo similar.A su vez, en el desarrollo de las ciencias de la educación ha pasado algo análogo a lo descrito precedentemente.

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