ADCAIJ: Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal <p dir="ltr">The <a title="adcaij" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal</a> (ISSN: 2255-2863) is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence, and their application in different areas, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on.&nbsp;These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. Authors are solicited to contribute to the journal by submitting articles that illustrate research results, projects, surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the areas of computing.</p> <p dir="ltr">Adcaij focuses attention in the exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians. &nbsp;Both, academic and business areas, are essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society. The journal is supported by the research group and start-up value <a title="bisite" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BISITE</a>.</p> <p dir="ltr">The journal commenced publication in 2012; has quarterly periodicity and has published 192 articles with peer review. All the articles are written in scientific English language.</p> <p dir="ltr">It has indexed in DOAJ, ProQuest, Scholar, WorldCat, Dialnet, Sherpa ROMEO, Dulcinea, UlrichWeb, Emerging Sources Citation Index of Thomson Reuters, BASE y Academic Journals Database.</p> Universidad de Salamanca en-US ADCAIJ: Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal 2255-2863 Healthcare Data Collection Using Internet of Things and Blockchain Based Decentralized Data Storage <p>With the increase in usage of Internet of Things devices (IoT), IoT is used in different sectors such as manufacturing, electric vehicles, home automation and healthcare. The IoT devices collected large volumes of data on different parameters at regular intervals. Storing a massive amount volume of IoT data securely is a complicated task. Presently, the majority of IoT devices use cloud storage to store the data, however, cloud servers require large storage and high computation. Due to third party cloud service provider (CSP) interaction, the management of IoT data security fully depends on the CSP. To manage these problems, a decentralized blockchain based secure storage is proposed in this work. In the proposed scheme, instead of CSP storage location, the patient health information is stored in the blockchain technique and the blockchain miners verify the transactions with the help of Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). The miner verification process dynamically avoids adversary access. Similarly, the certificateless access is used in the proposed system to avoid certificate based issues. The blocks in the blockchain is going to be stored patient details in a decentralized storage location to avoid unauthorized access and ensure the authenticity of data. The use of blockchain eliminates the need for third party public auditing process through immutable storage. This work illustrates secure communication and immutable data storage without the intervention of CSP. The communication overhead reduced by nearly 10 to 40% and authentication improved by 10 to 20% while confidentiality increased by 5% in comparison to existing techniques. Through this technique, data confidentiality, integrity and availability is ensured.</p> M. Sumathi S. P. Raja N. Vijayaraj M. Rajkamal Copyright (c) 2023 Sumathi M, Raja S P, Vijayaraj N, Rajkamal M 2023-10-06 2023-10-06 12 1 e28612 e28612 10.14201/adcaij.28612 Restricted Computations and Parameters in Type-Theory of Acyclic Recursion <p>The paper extends the formal language and the reduction calculus of Moschovakis type-theory of recursion, by adding a restrictor operator on terms with predicative restrictions. Terms with restrictions over memory variables formalise inductive algorithms with generalised, restricted parameters. The extended type-theory of restricted recursion (TTRR) provides computations for algorithmic semantics of mathematical expressions and definite descriptors, in formal and natural languages.</p> <p>The reduction calculi of TTRR provides a mathematical foundation of the work of compilers for reducing recursive programs to iterative ones. The type-theory of acyclic recursion (TTAR) has a special importance to syntax-semantics interfaces in computational grammars.</p> Roussanka Loukanova Copyright (c) 2023 Roussanka Loukanova 2023-07-20 2023-07-20 12 1 e29081 e29081 10.14201/adcaij.29081 Eta-Reduction in Type-Theory of Acyclic Recursion <p>We investigate the applicability of the classic eta-conversion in the type-theory of acyclic algorithms. While denotationally valid, classic eta-conversion is not algorithmically valid in the type theory of algorithms, with the exception of few limited cases. The paper shows how the restricted, algorithmic eta-rule can recover algorithmic eta-conversion in the reduction calculi of type-theory of algorithms.</p> Roussanka Loukanova Copyright (c) 2022 Roussanka Loukanova 2023-07-18 2023-07-18 12 1 e29199 e29199 10.14201/adcaij.29199 Comparison of Swarm-based Metaheuristic and Gradient Descent-based Algorithms in Artificial Neural Network Training <p><em>This paper aims to compare the gradient descent-based algorithms under classical training model and swarm-based metaheuristic algorithms in feed forward backpropagation artificial neural network training. Batch weight and bias rule, Bayesian regularization, cyclical weight and bias rule and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithms are used as the classical gradient descent-based algorithms. In terms of the swarm-based metaheuristic algorithms, hunger games search, gray wolf optimizer, Archimedes optimization, and the Aquila optimizer are adopted. The Iris data set is used in this paper for the training. Mean square error, mean absolute error and determination coefficient are used as statistical measurement techniques to determine the effect of the network architecture and the adopted training algorithm. The metaheuristic algorithms are shown to have superior capability over the gradient descent-based algorithms in terms of artificial neural network training. In addition to their success in error rates, the classification capabilities of the metaheuristic algorithms are also observed to be in the range of 94%-97%. The hunger games search algorithm is also observed for its specific advantages amongst the metaheuristic algorithms as it maintains good performance in terms of classification ability and other statistical measurements.</em></p> Erdal Eker Murat Kayri Serdar Ekinci Davut İzci Copyright (c) 2023 erdal eker 2023-09-19 2023-09-19 12 1 e29969 e29969 10.14201/adcaij.29969 A Framework for Improving the Performance of QKDN using Machine Learning Approach <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>A reliable secure communication can be given between two remote parties by key sharing, quantum key distribution (QKD) is widely concentrated as the information in QKD is safeguarded by the laws of quantum physics. There are many techniques that deal with quantum key distribution network (QKDN), however, only few of them use machine learning (ML) and soft computing techniques to improve QKDN. ML can analyze data and improve itself through model training without having to be programmed manually. There has been a lot of progress in both the hardware and software of ML technologies. Given ML’s advantageous features, it can help improve and resolve issues in QKDN, facilitating its commercialization. The proposed work provides a detailed understanding of role of each layer of QKDN, addressing the limitations of each layer, and suggesting a framework to improve the performance metrics for various applications of QKDN by applying machine learning techniques, such as support vector machine and decision tree algorithms.</p> </div> </div> </div> R Arthi A Saravanan J S Nayana Chandresh MuthuKumaran Copyright (c) 2023 Arthi R, Saravanan A, Nayana J S, Chandresh MuthuKumaran 2023-09-19 2023-09-19 12 1 e30240 e30240 10.14201/adcaij.30240 Energy Efficient Compressor Cell for Low Power Computing <p>As the use of multimedia devices is rising, power management is becoming a major challenge. Various types of compressors have been designed in this study. Compressor circuits are designed using several circuits of XOR-XNOR gates and multiplexers. XOR-XNOR gate combinations and multiplexer circuits have been used to construct the suggested compressor design. The performance of the proposed compressor circuits using these low-power XOR-XNOR gates and multiplexer blocks has been found to be economical in terms of space and power. This study proposes low-power and high-speed 3-2, 4-2, and 5-2 compressors for digital signal processing applications. A new compressor has also been proposed that is faster and uses less energy than the traditional compressor. The full adder circuit, constructed using various combinations of XOR-XNOR gates, has been used to develop the proposed compressor. The proposed 3-2 compressor shows average power dissipation 571.7 nW and average delay 2.41 nS, 4-2 compressor shows average power dissipation 1235 nW and average delay 2.7 nS while 5-2 compressor shows average power dissipation 2973.50 nW and average delay 3.75 nS.</p> Rahul Mani Upadhyay R. K. Chauhan Manish Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 Rahul Mani Upadhyay, R.K. Chauhan, Manish Kumar 2023-09-19 2023-09-19 12 1 e30381 e30381 10.14201/adcaij.30381 Enhancing Energy Efficiency in Cluster Based WSN using Grey Wolf Optimization Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are typically made up of small, low-power sensor nodes (SNs) equipped with capability for wireless communication, processing, and sensing. These nodes collaborate with each other to form a self-organizing network. They can collect data from their surrounding environment, such as temperature, humidity, light intensity, or motion, and transmit it to a central base station (BS) or gateway for additional processing and analysis. LEACH and TSEP are examples of cluster-based protocols developed for WSNs. These protocols require careful design and optimization of CH selection algorithms, considering factors such as energy consumption, network scalability, data aggregation, load balancing, fault tolerance, and adaptability to dynamic network conditions. Various research efforts have been made to develop efficient CH selection algorithms in WSNs, considering these challenges and trade-offs. In this paper, the Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) algorithm is employed to address the problem of selecting CHs (CHs) in WSNs. The proposed approach takes into account two parameters: Residual Energy (RE) and the distance of node (DS)s from the BS. By visualizing and analyzing the GWO algorithm under variable parameters in WSNs, this research identifies the most appropriate node from all normal nodes for CH selection. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model, utilizing GWO, outperforms other approaches in terms of performance. Ashok Kumar Rai Lalit Kumar Tyagi Anoop Kumar Swapnita Srivastava Naushen Fatima Copyright (c) 2023 Ashok Kumar Rai Ashok 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 12 1 e30632 e30632 10.14201/adcaij.30632 Comparison of Pre-trained vs Custom-trained Word Embedding Models for Word Sense Disambiguation The prime objective of word sense disambiguation (WSD) is to develop such machines that can automatically recognize the actual meaning (sense) of ambiguous words in a sentence. WSD can improve various NLP and HCI challenges. Researchers explored a wide variety of methods to resolve this issue of sense ambiguity. However, majorly, their focus was on English and some other well-reputed languages. Urdu with more than 300 million users and a large amount of electronic text available on the web is still unexplored. In recent years, for a variety of Natural Language Processing tasks, word embedding methods have proven extremely successful. This study evaluates, compares, and applies a variety of word embedding approaches to Urdu Word embedding (both Lexical Sample and All-Words), including pre-trained (Word2Vec, Glove, and FastText) as well as custom-trained (Word2Vec, Glove, and FastText trained on the Ur-Mono corpus). Two benchmark corpora are used for the evaluation in this study: (1) the UAW-WSD-18 corpus and (2) the ULS-WSD-18 corpus. For Urdu All-Words WSD tasks, top results have been achieved (Accuracy=60.07 and F1=0.45) using pre-trained FastText. For the Lexical Sample, WSD has been achieved (Accuracy=70.93 and F1=0.60) using custom-trained GloVe word embedding method. Muhammad Farhat Ullah Ali Saeed Naveed Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 Dr. Naveed Hussain 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 12 1 e31084 e31084 10.14201/adcaij.31084