Hacia la educación del futuro: El pensamiento computacional como mecanismo de aprendizaje generativo

Eduardo SEGREDO, Gara MIRANDA, Coromoto LEÓN

Resumen


La transformación de la educación tradicional en una educación “SMART” (del inglés, “Sensitive, Manageable, Adaptable, Responsive and Timely”) implica la modernización integral de todos los procesos educativos. Para dicha transformación, la incorporación de nuevas pedagogías se vuelve imprescindible a nivel metodológico, mientras que el uso de entornos interactivos e inteligentes de aprendizaje supone un hito fundamental a nivel tecnológico. En cualquier caso, el objetivo último de esta transformación es formar y transformar a los estudiantes del futuro para que desarrollen habilidades del siglo XXI y puedan convertirse así en ciudadanos de nuestro mundo en continuo cambio. La tecnología y las computadoras son un aspecto esencial para esta modernización, no solo en términos de soporte tecnológico, sino también en términos de ofrecer nuevas metodologías para el desarrollo de nuevas pedagogías y habilidades. En este contexto, el pensamiento computacional aparece como un mecanismo prometedor para fomentar estas nuevas competencias básicas, ya que ofrece herramientas que se ajustan a los intereses del alumnado y les da la posibilidad de comprender mejor los fundamentos de nuestra sociedad y de los entornos basados en las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC). En este trabajo, planteamos la necesidad de realizar un esfuerzo para fomentar el desarrollo del pensamiento computacional como una oportunidad para transformar las pedagogías tradicionales en metodologías adaptadas al futuro. Además, presentamos una visión general sobre el pensamiento computacional y analizamos el estado actual de la educación “SMART”, haciendo hincapié en la falta de metodologías que permitan apoyar esta transición. Por último, proporcionamos —a aquellos educadores interesados en conseguir un cambio real— información sobre iniciativas dedicadas a la difusión o promoción del pensamiento computacional; herramientas o materiales de apoyo para el desarrollo del pensamiento computacional entre los estudiantes; así como una síntesis de las experiencias y los resultados existentes en relación a la aplicación del pensamiento computacional en entornos educativos.

Palabras clave


Pensamiento computacional; Educación “SMART”; Resolución de problemas; Programación informática; Aprendizaje generativo

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14201/eks2017182335





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