Acceso a la estructura fonológica de la lengua: repercusión en los lectores sordos

Ana Belén DOMÍNGUEZ GUTIÉRREZ, Jacqueline LEYBAERT

Resumen


La lengua escrita está basada en la fonología. Las letras representan con mayor o menor fidelidad a los fonemas y este hecho es fundamental para apren der a leer, como demuestran los actuales modelos teóricos de lectura. En el caso de las personas sordas, el acceso a la dimensión fonológica de la lengua puede estar dificultado a causa del déficit auditivo y, por lo tanto, ser causa de dificultades en la lectura. Las investigaciones actuales muestran que sigue existiendo un intenso deba te sobre la cuestión de la participación de la fonología en la lectura de los niños sordos. En este artículo se resumen y discuten varias de las opciones principales que pueden ayudar hoy en día a los niños sordos a acceder a la dimensión fonoló gica de la lengua: el implante coclear; la exposición a la lengua oral con ayuda de la palabra complementada; ambas opciones juntas; y la exposición a la lengua de sig nos. Los datos parecen mostrar que es esencial proporcionar a los niños sordos la oportunidad de acceder a una primera lengua, temprana, estructurada en el nivel fonológico, léxico y morfosintáctico, y el acceso a la estructura fonológica de la lengua oral.


Palabras clave


fonología; sordera; implante coclear; lengua escrita; palabra complementada

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Referencias


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