El compromiso escolar (school engagement) de los adolescentes: Medida de sus dimensiones

José Manuel TOMÁS, Melchor GUTIÉRREZ, Patricia SANCHO, Silvia CHIREAC, Isabel ROMERO

Resumen


Un tópico relevante en la investigación sobre la escuela es el compromiso escolar o school engagement. Este tópico se ha relacionado abundantemente con el burnout, de profesores y alumnos, y ha mostrado significativas relaciones con variables como el rendimiento escolar, satisfacción con la escuela, problemas de disciplina, orientaciones motivacionales de los alumnos y clima motivacional de la clase, relaciones entre alumnos y profesores, y satisfacción con la vida de los escolares, entre otras. El compromiso escolar se define como la participación del estudiante en los logros académicos, y se entiende como un constructo multidimensional. La tipología más repetida ha mostrado tres dimensiones (cognitiva, afectiva y conductual), pero a éstas recientemente se ha añadido una nueva, el compromiso agéntico. Con frecuencia, los profesionales de la educación denuncian la falta de instrumentos para evaluar determinadas características de los alumnos y los aspectos psicosociales y comportamentales en clase. Como respuesta a esto, Veiga (2013) ha sido el primero en presentar un instrumento de autoinforme en portugués (el Student Engagement Scale-ses-4ds) que mide cuatro dimensiones de compromiso, cognitivo, afectivo, conductual y agéntico. El objetivo de este trabajo ha consistido en estudiar la validez y fiabilidad de esta escala en dos versiones, castellano y portugués. Los resultados han mostrado una clara estructura factorial, una vez eliminados dos ítems. La validez de criterio y nomológica han resultado adecuadas. Por tanto, a la vista de los resultados, la presente escala supone un instrumento válido de aplicación para la medición del compromiso escolar de los adolescentes.

 

Palabras clave


compromiso del alumno; proceso educativo; técnicas de medición; satisfacción con la escuela; clima motivacional; apoyo a la autonomía

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14201/et2016341119135





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