La detección e intervención tempranas en menores con trastorno del espectro autista

Patricia GARCÍA PRIMO, Manuel POSADA DE LA PAZ, M.ª Victoria MARTÍN CILLEROS, José SANTOS BORBUJO, Gloria BUENO CARRERA, Ricardo CANAL BEDIA

Resumen


La importancia de la detección y de la intervención precoz en los trastornos del espectro autista (TEA) ha adquirido gran interés tanto para las sociedades profesionales como por la administración sanitaria. Con el propósito de facilitar la puesta en marcha de dispositivos de detección y de atención e intervención a edades tempranas de estos niños, es necesaria una información actualizada y sintetizada sobre los procedimientos de cribado y las técnicas de atención temprana para niños con TEA, reflejando los aspectos más relevantes que se deduzcan de las experiencias y estudios llevados a cabo hasta el momento. Tras la revisión realizada en nuestro estudio sobre las experiencias de detección precoz de autismo, se obtiene un grupo de consideraciones importantes, para realizar análisis críticos de programas de cribado en marcha así como recomendaciones para experiencias futuras. Así mismo, la revisión de los estudios sobre la eficacia de los programas de atención temprana nos proporciona una visión esperanzadora, indicando que éstos son cada vez más frecuentes, sistemáticos y metodológicamente más apropiados. Llevamos mucho camino recorrido, pero aún queda mucho por hacer.

Palabras clave


autismo; detección; intervención temprana; tratamiento

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Akobeng, A. K. (2007). Understanding diagnostic tests 2: likelihood ratios, pre- and post-test probabilities and their use in clinical practice. Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992), 96 (4), 487-491.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2006.00179.x

Aldred, C., Green, J., Emsley, R. y McConachie, H. (2012). Brief Report: Mediation of Treatment Effect in a Communication Intervention for Pre-School Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42 (3), 447-454. doi:10.1007/s10803-011- 1248-3.

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder: DSM-IV (4th ed., text rev.).

Azmitia, E. C., Singh, J. S. y Whitaker-Azmitia, P. M. (2011). Increased serotonin axons (immunoreactive to 5-HT transporter) in postmortem brains from young autism donors. Neuropharmacology, 60 (7-8), 1347-1354.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.02.002

Baird, G., Charman, T., Baron-Cohen, S., Cox, A., Swettenham, J., Wheelwright, S. y Drew, A. (2000). A screening instrument for autism at 18 months of age: a 6-year follow- up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39 (6), 694-702. doi:10.1097/00004583-200006000-00007.

Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Meldrum, D. y Charman, T. (2006). Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP). Lancet, 368 (1474-547X [Electronic]), 210-215. Recuperado a partir de PM: 16844490.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(06)69041-7

Baranek, G. T. (1999). Autism during infancy: a retrospective video analysis of sensory- motor and social behaviors at 9-12 months of age. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29 (3), 213-224. doi:10.1023/A:1023080005650.

Barbaro, J. y Dissanayake, C. (2010). Prospective identification of autism spectrum disorders in infancy and toddlerhood using developmental surveillance: The Social Attention and Communication Study. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 31 (5), 376-385.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181df7f3c

Barnea-Goraly, N., Lotspeich, L. J. y Reiss, A. L. (2010). Similar white matter aberrations in children with autism and their unaffected siblings: a diffusion tensor imaging study using tract-based spatial statistics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67 (10), 1052-1060. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.123.

Baron-Cohen, S., Allen, J. y Gillberg, C. (1992). Can autism be detected at 18 months? The needle, the haystack, and the CHAT. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, 161, 839-843. doi:10.1192/bjp.161.6.839.

Branson, D., Vigil, D. C. y Bingham, A. (2008). Community Childcare Providers’ Role in the Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35 (6), 523-530. doi:10.1007/s10643-008-0243-6.

Camp, B. W. (2006). What the clinician really needs to know: questioning the clinical usefulness of sensitivity and specificity in studies of screening tests. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 27 (3), 226-230.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004703-200606000-00009

Canal-Bedia, R., García Primo, P., Martín Cilleros, M. V., Guisuraga Fernández, Z., Herráez, M., Guerra Juanes, I., … de la Paz, M. (2013). Diagnóstico precoz y sistemas de cribado en los trastornos del espectro autista. En F. Alcantud (Ed.), Trastornos del espectro autista. Detección, diagnóstico e intervención temprana (pp. 61-94). Madrid: Pirámide.

Canal-Bedia, R., García-Primo, P., Martín-Cilleros, M. V., Santos-Borbujo, J., Guisuraga-Fernández, Z., Herráez-García, L., … Posada de la Paz, M. (2011). Modified checklist for autism in toddlers: cross-cultural adaptation and validation in Spain. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41 (1573-3432 [Electronic]), 1342-1351. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1163-z.

Carpenter, M., Nagell, K. y Tomasello, M. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Dev., 63 (0037-976X [Print]), i-143. Recuperado a partir de PM: 9835078.

Carter, A. S., Messinger, D. S., Stone, W. L., Celimli, S., Nahmias, A. S. y Yoder, P. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of Hanen’s “More Than Words” in toddlers with early autism symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 52 (7), 741-752. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02395.x.

Charman, T. y Baird, G. (2002). Practitioner review: Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in 2- and 3-year-old children. Journal of Child Psycholgy and Psychiatry, 43 (0021-9630 [Print]), 289-305. Recuperado a partir de PM: 11944873.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00022

Charman, T. y Gotham, K. (2013). Measurement Issues: Screening and diagnostic instruments for autism spectrum disorders - lessons from research and practice. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 18 (1), 52-63. doi:10.1111/j.1475-3588.2012.00664.x.

Chawarska, K., Paul, R., Klin, A., Hannigen, S., Dichtel, L. E. y Volkmar, F. (2007). Parental recognition of developmental problems in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37 (1), 62-72. doi:10.1007/ s10803-006-0330-8.

Chawarska, K. y Shic, F. (2009). Looking but not seeing: atypical visual scanning and recognition of faces in 2 and 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39 (12), 1663-1672. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0803-7. Chlebowski, C., Robins, D. L., Barton, M. L. y Fein, D. (2013). Large-scale use of the modified checklist for autism in low-risk toddlers. Pediatrics, 131 (4), e1121-1127.

Coonrod, E. E. y Stone, W. L. (2005). Screening for Autism in Young Children. En F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin y D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470939352.ch1

Courchesne, E., Carper, R. y Akshoomoff, N. (2003a). Evidence of brain overgrowth in the first year of life in autism. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 290 (3), 337-344. doi:10.1001/jama.290.3.337.

Courchesne, E., Karns, C. M., Davis, H. R., Ziccardi, R., Carper, R. A., Tigue, Z. D.… Courchesne, R. Y. (2001). Unusual brain growth patterns in early life in patients with autistic disorder: an MRI study. Neurology, 57 (2), 245-254.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.57.2.245

Dalton, K. M., Nacewicz, B. M., Johnstone, T., Schaefer, H. S., Gernsbacher, M. A., Goldsmith, H. H., … Davidson, R. J. (2005). Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nature Neuroscience, 8 (4), 519-526. doi:10.1038/nn1421.

Dawson, G., Rogers, S., Munson, J., Smith, M., Winter, J., Greenson, J., … Varley, J. (2010). Randomized, Controlled Trial of an Intervention for Toddlers With Autism: The Early Start Denver Model. Pediatrics, 125 (1), e17-e23. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-0958.

Dereu, M., Raymaekers, R., Warreyn, P., Schietecatte, I., Meirsschaut, M. y Roeyers, H.(2012). Can child care workers contribute to the early detection of autism spectrum disorders? A comparison between screening instruments with child care workers versus parents as informants. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42 (1573-3432 [Electronic]), 781-796. doi:10.1007/s10803-011-1307-9.

Dereu, M., Warreyn, P., Raymaekers, R., Meirsschaut, M., Pattyn, G., Schietecatte,H y Roeyers, H. (2010). Screening for autism spectrum disorders in Flemish day-care centres with the checklist for early signs of developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40 (10), 1247-1258. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-0984-0.

Dietz, C., Swinkels, S., Van Daalen, E., Van Engeland, H. y Buitelaar, J. K. (2006). Screening for autistic spectrum disorder in children aged 14-15 months. II: population screening with the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Design and general findings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36 (6), 713-722. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0114-1.

Dyches, T. T., Wilder, L. K., Sudweeks, R. R., Obiakor, F. E. y Algozzine, B. (2004). Multicultural issues in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34 (2), 211- 222.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JADD.0000022611.80478.73

Elsabbagh, M., Divan, G., Koh, Y. J., Kim, Y. S., Kauchali, S., Marcín, C., … Fombonne, E. (2012). Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research, 5 (3), 160-179. doi:10.1002/aur.239.

Elsabbagh, M. y Johnson, M. H. (2010). Getting answers from babies about autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14 (2), 81-87. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2009.12.005.

Frye, R. E. y Rossignol, D. A. (2011). Mitochondrial dysfunction can connect the diverse medical symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatric Research, 69 (5 Pt 2), 41R-7R. doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e318212f16b.

García-Primo, P., Hellendoorn, A., Charman, T., Roeyers, H., Dereu, M., Roge, B., … Canal-Bedia, R. (2014). Screening for autism spectrum disorders: state of the art in Europe. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0555-6.

García-Primo, P., Santos Borbujo, J., Martín Cilleros, M. V., Martínez Velarte, M., Lleras Muñoz, S., Posada de la Paz, M. y Canal-Bedia, R. (2013). Pervasive developmental disorders screening program in the health areas of Salamanca and Zamora in Spain. Anales de Pediatría (Barcelona, Spain: 2003). doi:10.1016/j.anpedi.2013.06.030.

Glascoe, F. P. (1997). Parents’ Concerns About Children’s Development: Prescreening Technique or Screening Test? Pediatrics, 99 (4), 522-528. doi:10.1542/peds.99.4.522.

Gottesman, I. I. y Gould, T. D. (2003). The Endophenotype Concept in Psychiatry: Etymology and Strategic Intentions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160 (4), 636-645. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.160.4.636.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.4.636

Green, J., Charman, T., McConachie, H., Aldred, C., Slonims, V., Howlin, P., … Pickles, A. (2010). Parent-mediated communication-focused treatment in children with autism (PACT): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 375 (9732), 2152-2160. doi:10.1016/ S0140-6736(10)60587-9.

Groen, W. B., Swinkels, S. H., Van Der Gaag, R. J. y Buitelaar, J. K. (2007). Finding effective screening instruments for autism using bayes theorem. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 161 (4), 415-416. doi:10.1001/archpedi.161.4.415.

Gulsrud, A. C., Kasari, C., Freeman, S. y Paparella, T. (2007). Children with autism’s response to novel stimuli while participating in interventions targeting joint attention or symbolic play skills. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 11 (6), 535-546. doi:10.1177/1362361307083255.

Hanley, H. G., Stahl, S. M. y Freedman, D. X. (1977). Hyperserotonemia and amine metabolites in autistic and retarded children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34 (5), 521- 531. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1977.01770170031002.

Haznedar, M. M., Buchsbaum, M. S., Hazlett, E. A., Licalzi, E. M., Cartwright, C. y Hollander, E. (2006). Volumetric analysis and three-dimensional glucose metabolic mapping of the striatum and thalamus in patients with autism spectrum disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163 (7), 1252-1263. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.7.1252.

Ingersoll, B. (2010). Brief Report: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Reciprocal Imitation Training for Teaching Elicited and Spontaneous Imitation to Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40 (9), 1154-1160. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-0966-2.

Kagohara, D. M. (2010). Is video-based instruction effective in the rehabilitation of children with autism spectrum disorders? Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 13 (2), 129-140.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-010-0966-2

Kasari, C., Gulsrud, A. C., Wong, C., Kwon, S. y Locke, J. (2010). Randomized controlled caregiver mediated joint engagement intervention for toddlers with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40 (9), 1045-1056. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-0955-5.

Keen, D., Couzens, D., Muspratt, S. y Rodger, S. (2010). The effects of a parent-focused intervention for children with a recent diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder on parenting stress and competence. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4 (2), 229-241.

Kim, J. E., Lyoo, I. K., Estes, A. M., Renshaw, P. F., Shaw, D. W., Friedman, S. D., … Dager, S. R. (2010). Laterobasal amygdalar enlargement in 6- to 7-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67 (11), 1187-1197. doi:10.1001/ archgenpsychiatry.2010.148.

Kleinman, J. M., Robins, D. L., Ventola, P. E., Pandey, J., Boorstein, H. C., Esser, E. L., … Fein, D. (2007). The modified checklist for autism in toddlers: a follow-up study investigating the early detection of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38 (0162-3257 [Print]), 827-839. Recuperado a partir de PM: 17882539.

Kogan, M. D., Blumberg, S. J., Schieve, L. A., Boyle, C. A., Perrin, J. M., Ghandour, R. M., … Van Dyck, P. C. (2009). Prevalence of parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder among children in the US, 2007. Pediatrics, 124 (1098-4275 [Electronic]), 1395-1403.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-1522

Kogan, M. D., Blumberg, S. J., Schieve, L. A., Boyle, C. A., Perrin, J. M., Ghandour, R. M., … Van Dyck, P. C. (2009). Prevalence of Parent-Reported Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children in the US, 2007. Pediatrics, 124 (5), 1395-1403.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-1522

Kokina, A. y Kern, L. (2010). Social Story interventions for students with autism spectrum isorders: a meta-analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40 (7), 812- 826.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0931-0

Landa, R. J., Holman, K. C., O’Neill, A. H. y Stuart, E. A. (2011). Intervention targeting development of socially synchronous engagement in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 52 (1), 13-21. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02288.x.

Lydon, H., Healy, O. y Leader, G. (2011). A comparison of Video Modeling and Pivotal Response Training to teach pretend play skills to children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5 (2), 872-884. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2010.10.002.

Magiati, I., Moss, J., Charman, T. y Howlin, P. (2011). Patterns of change in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders who received community based comprehensive interventions in their pre-school years: A seven year follow-up study. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5 (3), 1016-1027. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2010.11.007.

Makrygianni, M. K. y Reed, P. (2010). A meta-analytic review of the effectiveness of behavioural early intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4 (4), 577-593. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2010.01.014.

McConachie, H. y Diggle, T. (2007). Parent implemented early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 13 (1), 120-129. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2753.2006.00674.x.

Mulder, E. J., Anderson, G. M., Kema, I. P., De Bildt, A., Van Lang, N. Dj. … Minderaa,

R. B. (2004). Platelet Serotonin Levels in Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Mental Retardation: Diagnostic Group Differences, Within-Group Distribution, and Behavioral Correlates. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43 (4), 491-499. doi:10.1097/00004583-200404000-00016.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2011). Autism: recognition, referral and diagnosis of children and young people on the autism spectrum. Recuperado a partir de http://publications.nice.org.uk/autism-diagnosis-in-children-and- young-people-cg128.

Nygren, G., Sandberg, E., Gillstedt, F., Ekeroth, G., Arvidsson, T. y Gillberg, C. (2012). A new screening programme for autism in a general population of Swedish toddlers. Res. Developmental Disability, 33 (1873-3379 (Electronic)), 1200-1210. Recuperado a partir de PM: 22502846.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2012.02.018

Odom, S. L., Boyd, B. A., Hall, L. J. y Hume, K. (2010). Evaluation of Comprehensive Treatment Models for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40 (4), 425-436. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0825-1.

Oosterling, I. J., Swinkels, S. H., Van Der Gaag, R. J., Visser, J. C., Dietz, C. y Buitelaar, J. K. (2009a). Comparative analysis of three screening instruments for autism spectrum disorder in toddlers at high risk. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39 (6), 897-909. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0692-9.

Oosterling, I. J., Swinkels, S. H., Van Der Gaag, R. J., Visser, J. C., Dietz, C. y Buitelaar, J. K. (2009b). Comparative analysis of three screening instruments for autism spectrum disorder in toddlers at high risk. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39 (6), 897-909. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0692-9.

Oosterling, I., Visser, J., Swinkels, S., Rommelse, N., Donders, R., Woudenberg, T., … Buitelaar, J. K. (2010). Randomized Controlled Trial of the Focus Parent Training for Toddlers with Autism: 1-Year Outcome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40 (12), 1447-1458. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1004-0.

Oosterling, I. J., Wensing, M., Swinkels, S. H., Van Der Gaag, R. J., Visser, J. C., Woudenberg, T., … Buitelaar, J. K. (2010). Advancing early detection of autism spectrum disorder by applying an integrated two-stage screening approach. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 51 (3), 250-258

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02150.x

Ozonoff, S., Macari, S., Young, G. S., Goldring, S., Thompson, M. y Rogers, S. J. (2008). Atypical object exploration at 12 months of age is associated with autism in a prospective sample. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 12 (5), 457-472.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361308096402

Peters-Scheffer, N., Didden, R., Korzilius, H. y Sturmey, P. (2011). A meta-analytic study on the effectiveness of comprehensive ABA-based early intervention programs for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5 (1), 60-69.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.03.011

Peters-Scheffer, N., Didden, R., Mulders, M. y Korzilius, H. (2010). Low intensity behavioral treatment supplementing preschool services for young children with autism spectrum disorders and severe to mild intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31 (6), 1678-1684. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2010.04.008.

Pinto-Martin, J. y Levy, S. E. (2004). Early Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Current Treatment Options in Neurology, 6 (5), 391-400.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11940-996-0030-x

Preston, D. y Carter, M. (2009). A review of the efficacy of the picture exchange communication system intervention. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39 (10), 1471-1486.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0763-y

Reznick, J. S., Baranek, G. T., Reavis, S., Watson, L. R. y Crais, E. R. (2007). A parent- report instrument for identifying one-year-olds at risk for an eventual diagnosis of autism: the first year inventory. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37 (9), 1691-1710.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0303-y

Roberts, J., Williams, K., Carter, M., Evans, D., Parmenter, T., Silove, N., … Warren, A. (2011). A randomised controlled trial of two early intervention programs for young children with autism: Centre-based with parent program and home-based. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5 (4), 1553-1566. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2011.03.001.

Robins, D. L., Fein, D., Barton, M. L. y Green, J. A. (2001). The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers: an initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31 (2), 131-144.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010738829569

Rogers, S. J. y Vismara, L. A. (2008). Evidence-based comprehensive treatments for early autism. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology: The Official Journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division, 53, 37 (1), 8-38. doi:10.1080/15374410701817808.

Rutter, Bailey y Lord. (2003). The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Recuperado a partir de http://bestpracticeautism.blogspot.com.es/2011/06/best-practice-review-social.html.

Scambler, D., Rogers, S. J. y Wehner, E. A. (2001). Can the checklist for autism in toddlers differentiate young children with autism from those with developmental delays? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40 (12), 1457-1463.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200112000-00017

Shukla, D. K., Keehn, B., Lincoln, A. J. y Müller, R. A. (2010). White matter compromise of callosal and subcortical fiber tracts in children with autism spectrum disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49 (12), 1269-1278, 1278.e1-2. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2010.08.018.

Sinha, Y., Silove, N., Hayen, A. y Williams, K. (2011). Auditory integration training and other sound therapies for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). En The Cochrane Collaboration e Y. Sinha (Eds.), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Recuperado a partir de http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ doi/10.1002/14651858.CD003681.pub3/abstract.

Smith, I. M., Koegel, R. L., Koegel, L. K., Openden, D. A., Fossum, K. L. y Bryson, S. E. (2010). Effectiveness of a novel community-based early intervention model for children with autistic spectrum disorder. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 115 (6), 504-523. doi:10.1352/1944-7558-115.6.504.

Swinkels, S. H. N., Dietz, C., Van Daalen, E., Kerkhof, I. H. G. M., Van Engeland, H. y Buitelaar, J. K. (2006). Screening for autistic spectrum in children aged 14 to 15 months. I: the development of the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36 (6), 723-732. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0115-0.

Thelen, E. (1981). Kicking, rocking, and waving: contextual analysis of rhythmical stereotypies in normal human infants. Animal Behaviour, 29 (1), 3-11.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(81)80146-7

Van Der Meer, L. A. J. y Rispoli, M. (2010). Communication interventions involving speech- generating devices for children with autism: a review of the literature. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 13 (4), 294-306. doi:10.3109/17518421003671494.

Virués-Ortega, J. (2010). Applied behavior analytic intervention for autism in early childhood: meta-analysis, meta-regression and dose-response meta-analysis of multiple outcomes. Clinical Psychology Review, 30 (4), 387-399. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2010.01.008.

Warren, Z., McPheeters, M. L., Sathe, N., Foss-Feig, J. H., Glasser, A. y Veenstra-Vanderweele, J. (2011a). A Systematic Review of Early Intensive Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics, peds. 2011-0426. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-0426.

Warren, Z., McPheeters, M. L., Sathe, N., Foss-Feig, J. H., Glasser, A. y Veenstra-Vanderweele, J. (2011b). A Systematic Review of Early Intensive Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics, peds. 2011-0426. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-0426.

Wetherby, A. M., Allen, L., Cleary, J., Kublin, K. y Goldstein, H. (2002). Validity and reliability of the communication and symbolic behavior scales developmental profile with very young children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45 (6), 1202- 1218.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2002/097)

Whalen, C., Schreibman, L. e Ingersoll, B. (2006). The collateral effects of joint attention training on social initiations, positive affect, imitation, and spontaneous speech for young children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36 (5), 655-664. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0108-z.

Whittingham, K., Sofronoff, K., Sheffield, J. y Sanders, M. R. (2009). Stepping Stones Triple P: an RCT of a parenting program with parents of a child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37 (4), 469-480. doi:10.1007/ s10802-008-9285-x.

Willemsen-Swinkels, S. H., Buitelaar, J. K. y Van Engeland, H. (2001). Is 18 months too early for the CHAT? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40 (7), 737-738. doi:10.1097/00004583-200107000-00002.

Wong, V. C. N. y Kwan, Q. K. (2010). Randomized controlled trial for early intervention for autism: a pilot study of the Autism 1-2-3 Project. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40 (6), 677-688. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0916-z.

Yoder, P. J. y Lieberman, R. G. (2010). Brief Report: Randomized test of the efficacy of picture exchange communication system on highly generalized picture exchanges in children with ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40 (5), 629-632.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0897-y

Zachor, D. A. y Curatolo, P. (2013). Recommendations for early diagnosis and intervention in autism spectrum disorders: An Italian-Israeli consensus conference. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: Official Journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14201/scero20154623155

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

ESCI Web of Science