El infradiagnóstico del trastorno mental en la población con discapacidad intelectual: estudio de prevalencia en población con diferentes grados de discapacidad intelectual

Carlos PEÑA SALAZAR, Francesc ARRUFAT NEBOT, Abel FONTANET, Nuria GARCÍA-LEÓN, Silvia MÁS, Pere ROURA-POCH, Josep Manel SANTOS LÓPEZ

Resumen


Introducción: Existen pocos estudios en la literatura que hayan analizado la prevalencia de enfermedades mentales en las personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI). Se presenta un estudio de identificación de enfermedad mental en población adulta sin trastorno mental previo conocido y con diferentes grados de DI.

Metodología: El presente estudio describe la comorbilidad psiquiátrica y médica de una muestra de 142 individuos con diferentes grados de DI. Para el estudio de enfermedad mental en la población con DI Leve/Moderada se utilizó la batería diagnóstica PAS-ADD, basada en criterios CIE-10 y DSM-IV TR y en la población con DI grave/severa la escala DASH-II

Resultados: El 29,57% de los participantes presentaron un trastorno psiquiátrico previamente no diagnosticado. En el grupo DI leve/moderada la patología más prevalente fue el trastorno depresivo mayor, en cambio en el grupo DI grave/profunda fue el trastorno de ansiedad. La comorbilidad médica más prevalente fue la epilepsia, con un 22,5% de la muestra global y un 39,2% en la población con discapacidad intelectual grave o severa.

Conclusión: Los trastornos psiquiátricos parecen ser más frecuentes en la población con DI que en población general, aumentando su prevalencia, así como su comorbilidad médica, en la DI severa/profunda. 


Palabras clave


Trastorno mental; discapacidad intelectual; diagnóstico; prevalencia.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14201/scero20174832739

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